Monday, September 30, 2019
One of the most deeply-debated, and researched, models of persuasion is the ELM (Elaboration Likelihood Model). Developed by Petty and Cacioppo (1981 to 1986). Based on cognitive processes, it Ã¢â¬Å"portrays receivers as active participants in the persuasion process. Receivers produce cognitions (thoughts, elaborations) in response to the stimulus of persuasive discourseÃ¢â¬ (Stephenson; Benoit; Tschida; 2001). Petty and Cacioppo argue there are two Ã¢â¬Å"routesÃ¢â¬ to persuasion: central and peripheral. The central route to persuasion consists of thoughtful consideration of the arguments (ideas, content) in the message, and occurs only when a receiver possesses both the motivation and ability to think about the message and topic. The peripheral route occurs when the receiver lacks ability and/or motivation to engage in much thought on the issue. Using the peripheral route, the listener decides whether to agree with the message based on other cues besides the strength of the arguments in the message, such as whether the source is credible or attractive, the number (but not the quality) of arguments in the message, or length of the message. Ã¢â¬ Petty and Cacioppo argue that subjects produce more favorable cognitive responses to messages with strong than weak arguments. Mitigating factors include source credibility, the state of the recipientÃ¢â¬â¢s thinking when the message is received, and method and medium used to deliver the message (i. e. , verbal or written; print or electronic), There is a considerable body of work, both pro and against the ELM. However, from the literature it seems we are once again left with the thought that the processes involved have yet to be rigorously tested as they relate to communication theory, let alone their effect on the Domino Model. Ã¢â¬Å"There have been relatively few rigorous tests of this assumption via path analysis or structural equation modelingÃ¢â¬ (Stephenson, Benoit, Tschida). American graphic designer Katherine McCoy suggests that persuasion might be considered more than just trying to convince an audience of the senderÃ¢â¬â¢s intention Ã¢â¬Å"The receiverÃ¢â¬â¢s motivation might also be an important factor. We know persuasion is necessary for distracted, unmotivated users. But it can also increase productivity for motivated users, for instance, through the use of prompts and cues for accurate use of spreadsheet software. In product design, persuasion/seduction can clarify operation sequences for smart products and enrich the userÃ¢â¬â¢s product experience. Persuasion provides motivation for those unmotivated through disinterest, unfamiliarity with the content, or lack of competence for a software tool or a productÃ¢â¬â¢s operation. There is a complex interaction between the senderÃ¢â¬â¢s intentions, message content, the audience/receiverÃ¢â¬â¢s motivations and the communications context. Here, the receiverÃ¢â¬â¢s motivation is paramountÃ¢â¬ (McCoy, 2000). But how accurately can we predict motivation? An airport monitor would seem to be purely informational. A traveler hurrying to catch a plane is highly motivated and will make full use of the flight monitor Ã¢â¬â no need to persuade this audience member. But when a driver in a hurry encounters a stop sign, that driver has a low motivation level. Although the content is informational, the driver may ignore it, making only a rolling stop. Thirdly, what happens when a junk food enthusiast encounters a food package with nutritional information? This audience member has low motivation and probably ignores message content completely. Ã¢â¬ In order to achieve persuasion, an audience has to be motivated; to want to absorb knowledge, change attitude and, in turn, have their behaviour affected. The American Marketing Association found that after a study of the major persuasion theories Ã¢â¬Å"to date, no single theory or framework that has been developed has been able to account for all the varied and sometimes conflicting persuasion findings. Ã¢â¬Å"Presumably, this is because the complex process of persuasion is intricately dependent on a myriad of contextual, situational, and individual difference factors, whereas the theories remain relatively simplistic and narrowly developed. The inability of existing theories to accommodate all persuasion findings need not suggest, however, that these theories are inaccurate. Rather, these theories simply may represent pieces of persuasion processes that operate in certain conditions that are not always clearly specifiedÃ¢â¬ . (Meyers-Levy, 2001). For good measure, highlighting the difficult nature of this area of study, the Association added an additional strategy that people are likely to employ in processing information. a third fundamental processing strategy in response to an advertisement, referred to as an Ã¢â¬Å"experiential processing strategy. where Ã¢â¬Å"judgments are not based on thoughts prompted by message content per se but rather on sensations or feelings prompted by the very act of processingÃ¢â¬ (cited in Strack, 1992). The Domino model is certainly simplistic, as it assumes that attitudes, and then behaviour, will be altered after information is provided. However, it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t recognise that attitudes are formed early in our development and are inherently difficult to change (why is it that drink-driving, anti-smoking and domestic violence programs donÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to work? ). So it canÃ¢â¬â¢t be assumed that all people will change their attitudes just because they receive information. In fact, many people may not even receive knowledge from the initial message, particularly if they already have heard the message. Given the number of persuasion theories (and they are just that: theories) it is difficult to judge with any certainty their effect on the Domino model. The simplicity of the Domino Model is probably a result of the fact that public relations is, for the most part, an inexact science Ã¢â¬â a practice that relies on the foibles of human nature. It also flawed in that what applies to a target group, does not necessarily apply to all individuals in that group. Clearly, more quantifiable research is required before either the Domino Model, or any persuasion theory can be considered exact. In fact Ã¢â¬Å"to date, no single theory or framework that has been developed has been able to account for all the varied and sometimes conflicting persuasion findings. Presumably, this is because the complex process of persuasion is intricately dependent on a myriad of contextual, situational, and individual difference factors, whereas the theories remain relatively simplistic and narrowly developedÃ¢â¬ (Meyers-Levy, 1999). As Carl Hovland stated: Ã¢â¬Å"to change attitude you have to change opinion. That requires communicationÃ¢â¬ . Whether any of the above theories affect the Domino model remain to be truly tested.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Due to the fact that the nervous system is not yet fully developed at this stage, a lot of the actions performed during this stage can be involuntary or just abrupt and spontaneous. Vision is undeveloped at ages 1 month to 5 months. Typically they are able to see just roughly 10 inches out. Once they reach 6 months old, their vision should be at full capacity, Initially, all actions are involuntary. Their arm may go up, but they are unsure as to how it got there, or why did it just hit them in their face. Suckling is another involuntary movement that is simply in their nature to do. Slowly they begin understanding that they control these movements. They are then able to figure out what they want and how to get what they want. Learning to trust the primary caregiver. Believing they will continue to feed them, change them, play with them, comfort them etc. Their primary form of communication is crying or cooing. When they need something they will cry to indicate a current need is not b eing met. Typically a coo would indicate all is well and they are content. Early Childhood During infancy, the body is very disproportionate. During the transition into early childhood, the body starts to transform in to what seems to appear as a mini adult form. The baby fat begins to go away, they gain a longer neck, and the round belly shrinks. During this stage they grow approx.. 2-3 inches per year. Brain development continues during early childhood. Children learn rapidly and brain changes enable more reflective coordinated thought and memory (Stassen Berger, 2010). Children learn when and how to express emotion. Emotional regulation influenced by brain maturation. Social guidance gradually increases from age 2-6. Children teach one another to be kind and loyal and how to control aggressive impulses (Stassen Berger, 2010) Middle and Late Childhood Growth slows down and muscle develops and health is usually good. Many children age 7 to 11 eat too much and exercise too little and become obese and overweight as a result (Stassen Berger, 2010). School age children have active minds and can learn almost anything. Reaction time increase. The brain becomes more selective in attention. Children are more efficient in memory (Stassen Berger, 2010). There are important transitions that happen during middle and late childhood that grow during adolescence. At the stage of middle and late childhood, children still relate to their families. Their parents have a strong influence regarding their decisions and actions. However, friendships are starting to grow and become more and more important. Friendships are developed based on Ã¢â¬Å"convenienceÃ¢â¬ . However, similar interests are starting to become an important factor in making friends. Friends have not yet become an influence in behavior. The urge to be independent hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t taken p lace yet. Adolescence Puberty takes places during adolescence. Each step involved with puberty happens at different ages. A non-physical change associated with puberty is the release of hormones. One of the hormones is the sex hormone. This causes a heighten desire for sexual activity. Physically, females go through changes such as the growth of their breast, the beginning of their menstrual cycle, and a growth spurt. Males go through a growth spurt, enlargement of the testicles and penis, and their first ejaculation. The adolescent brain develops at different times. The portion of the brain associated with emotions develops first. This explains why teenagers show a range of emotions are easily made upset. During the later adolescent years the brain develops the prefrontal cortex, which is associated with making healthier decisions and planning ahead (Berger 2010). Because of the delay of in brain development, teenagers do not think of the consequences of their actions. It is also during this stage that teenagers develop a sense of self, identity. During adolescence teenagers search for independence. Although they are not old enough to support themselves and make their own decisions, they try to find small ways to experience independence. Teenagers will try to make decisions on what they wear and what they do with friends. These kinds of decisions can create tension between teenagers and their parents. Parents are losing control of their teenager. They also doÃ not share the beliefs of their teenager because they belong to a different cohort. While teenagers are trying to establish their own beliefs and morals, they can clash with their parents. During this stage in life teenagers will conflict the most with their parents. Friends become the main influence in an adolescentÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions. It is during this stage that a teenager cares the most about what their friends think. Early Adulthood In early adulthood, between adolescence and middle age, the body begins to change. This is sometimes the point where the body is at its healthiest. Changes in diet affect how weight is gained or lost. How proper health habits will change the way the body reacts and grows. Life experiences begin to lend a hand to problem solving. More experiences lead to better decision making when it comes to relationships, career choice, or what events to attend. More of a realistic look on life versus a daydream or an idea. Goals are achieved by becoming more focused on the tasks in front of them, The ability to process problems for the best solution. Desire for intimacy. Having personal relationships become more fulfilling. A sense of self-sacrifice when it comes to others. A sense of belonging when in large groups. Fears isolation, ridicule, and loneliness. Change of behavior occurs dependent on the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s marital status, and continues until status is changed. Establishment of career goal and status. Middle Adulthood Aging has become a factor. Hair begins to turn grey or become lost, skin begins to wrinkle, and the body slows when it comes to metabolism which decreases weight loss. Women may start going through menopause while testosterone levels will decrease in men. The brain in middle adulthood goes through some changes and begins to slow down. People start to become forgetful and cannot remember things, which can be very frustrating and people start going into a midlife crisis. This is all caused by the brain shrinking as we get older. A personÃ¢â¬â¢s personality and temperament also changes as they begin to age. Middle aged is important time to have and keep good friends who are also in their middle age. The reason is that they are also going through all the different changes and all the anxiety as you are. Having friends that are going through the same things as you is very beneficial and supporting especially when you are having a hard time dealingÃ with the changes in life. Intimacy i s also something that is always needed throughout all stages of life. Late Adulthood In late adulthood, it is very common to lose vision to where it is harder to see things and it is common to develop cataracts, glaucoma, or macular degeneration. More common physical changes are sensory loss and more health problems such as cardiovascular disease which is common in late adulthood. It is very important for the elderly to get some exercise just like they use to do when they were younger, whether it is just walking, climbing stairs, or something that keeps you moving and not staying still all the time are all ways to stay healthier The adult brain in late adulthood changes just like it does all throughout life. In late adulthood, the brain does not function as well as it use to during the younger days. There is a lot more confusion and it is harder for a lot of elderly to understand things. As people get into their late adulthood they start gather some things that mean a lot to them and hoard them for safe keeping. Also people like to keep traditions going in order to stay in touch with family and friends as they age. Some people also still continue to work as long as they do not have any disabilities restricting them from doing so, while others are retired and rely on their retirement funds, AARP, disability payments or Medicaid to survive. Then as we get older, we start having to deal with the sad part of life called death that happens to everyone at some point in life.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
WEEK 7 :Operating and Information System: Case Study on AirAsiaAirAsia creates values through the following vision is to be the largest low cost airline in Asia and serving the 3 billion people who are currently underserved with poor connectivity and high fares. Beside that, the AirAsia also creates the mission is to be the best company to work for whereby employees are treated as part of a big family, create a globally recognized ASEAN brand, to attain the lowest cost so that everyone can fly with AirAsia and the last is maintain the highest quality product, embracing technology to reduce cost and enhance service levels. AirAsia makes the low fare model possible and create values through the implementation of the 6 key strategies. The first of the key strategies is Safety First, AirAsia wan to be partnering with the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most renowned maintenance providers and complying with the world airline operations. Beside that, the second key strategies is High Aircraft Utilization is mean implementing the regions fastest turnaround time at only 25 minutes, assuring lower costs and higher productivity. Low Fare and No Frills are also is AirAsiaÃ¢â¬â¢s key strategies, Low Fare and No Frills is mean providing guests with the choice of customizing services without compromising on quality and services. Another key strategies is Streamline Operation, this key strategies is make sure that processes are as simple as possible. Beside that, Lean Distribution System is offering a wide and innovative range of distribution channels to make booking and traveling easier. The last of the AirAsiaÃ¢â¬â¢s key strategies is Point to Point Network is to applying the point-to-point network keeps operation simple and lower costs. Business process and operation in the AirAsia is has fostered a dependency on Internet technology for its operational and strategic management, and provides an online ticket booking services to traveler online. In todays globalize economy, information technology has driven fundamental changes in the nature and application of technology in business. The implementation of information technology in its value chain provides powerful strategic and tactical tools for AirAsia, which if properly applied and used, could bring great advantages in promoting and strengthening the competitive advantages. Moreover, AirAsia has currently adopted information technologies strategically to integrate the operations and coordinate all the business and management functions. The followings are few system implementations that AirAsia has done in its marketing and sales activities as well as operation activity in the value chain. The lowest airlines like Air Asia attending low cost require high efficiency in every part of the business and maintaining simplicity. Therefore every system process must incorporate the best industry practices. The key components of the LCC business model are High aircraft utilization, No frills, Streamline Operations, Basic Amenities,Point to point network, Lean Distribution System. Aircraft is kept flying as much as possible, the first flight starts as early in the morning commercially possible and the final flight typically ends at midnight. A fast turnaround is critical to ensure time spent of the ground is minimal Ã¢â¬â an airline makes money when the aircraft is flying, not when the aircraft is parked. AirAsiaÃ¢â¬â¢s turnaround time is 25 minutes; compare that against 1 hour for a FSC. On average, AirAsiaÃ¢â¬â¢s utilization per aircraft is 12 block hours per day, a FSC might do about 8 block hours per day. No frills such as no free food and beverages, free seating, no refund and no loyalty programme. Making the process as simple as possible is the key of a successful LCC. Single type of aircraft, single class seating, Standard Operating Procedures. Secondary airports. Low cost carriers mostly fly to and from airports that are not necessarily the busiest, for example, London Ã¢â¬â Stanstead rather than London Ã¢â¬â Heathrow. These are often referred to as secondary airports. Operating from so called secondary airports is cheaper than from the bigger major airports and they are also a lot less congested and Ã¢â¬Å"turnaround timesÃ¢â¬ for aircraft are a lot shorter. Point to point network. LCC shuns the hub-and-spoke system and embraces the simple point-to-point network. Almost all AirAsia flights are short-haul (3 hour flight or less). No arrangements have been made with other airline companies on connecting flights, on possibilities of flight transfers, nor on having the luggage labeled and assed through from one flight to another. Distribution costs are something that FSC most often ignore. Very often, FSC relies on travel agents and from their posh sales office. Furthermore, FSC always blows the budget by complicating their distribution channels by integrating their systems with multiple Global Distribution Systems. LCC will keep their distribution channel as simple as possible and will cover the w hole spectrum of the clientele profile. For example, AirAsia can cater to the most sophisticated European traveler via internet and credit card sales. And at the same time, AirAsia has an established system to sell our tickets to the most remote and technology deprived locations, such as in Myanmar. When talking about LCC, some quarters will react with cynical and sometimes preposterous views. If a passenger must stand in a flight due to lack of seats or there will be chickens in the flight. Such misconceptions are not surprising, given the fact that scheduled, low-fare flights are a relatively new phenomenon in the world. The reason for the success of the new low cost carriers is very simple Ã¢â¬â move the maximum number of passengers at the minimum of cost. The concept of LCC is based on the idea that people would fly a lot more often if it were more affordable. LCC airlineÃ¢â¬â¢s main mission is to make air travel the most simple, convenient and inexpensive form of transportation in the world. The fare differential between the full service carriers (FSC) and LCC can be as high as 40%-60% cheaper. Air Asia SWOT such as Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. Strengths analysis have low cost operations, fewer management level, effective, focused and aggressive management, simple proven business model that consistently delivers that lowest fares, multi-skilled staffs means efficient and incentive workforce, penetrate and stimulate to potential markets. Weaknesses analysis have limited human resources could not handle irregular situation, government interference and regulation on airport deals and passenger compensation, brand is vital for market position and developing it is always a challenge, and new entrants to provide the price-sensitive services. Oppurtunities analysis also have long haul flight is an trial to get undeveloped market share, differentiation from traditional LCC model by adding customer services or operation as full service airline with low fare, and ongoing industry consolidation has opened up prospects for new routes and airport deals. And the last one Threats analysis have full service airlines start cut costs to compete, high fuel price decreases yield, accident, terrorist attack, and disaster and affect customer confidence, increase in operation cost in producing value-added services, and system disruption due to heavily reliance on online sales. In AirAsia have Yield Management System (YMS) . This system is to anticipates and reacts to the behavior of customers to maximize the revenue. For some example, for the seat are available at various prices in different points of time. A reservation done at a later date will be charged more than the one done earlier for the same seat. For the Route is adjusting prices for routes or destinations that have a higher demand when compared to others. During off-peak times while raising prices only marginally for peak times. For the AirAsiaÃ¢â¬â¢s Computer Reservation is an integrated web-enabled reservation and inventory system suite powered by NavitaireÃ¢â¬â¢s Open Skies technology that includes Internet, call center, and airport departure control functionality. Computer Reservation System is also satisfy the unique needs of AirAsia implementing a low-cost business model to transform the business process to efficiently streamline operations. Enterprise Resource Planning System(ERP) in AirAsia is an integrated solution powered by Microsoft Business Solutions (MBS) on Microsoft technology platform which is implemented by Avanade consultants in 2005. With the robust ERP technology platform, AirAsia is able to successfully maintain process integrity, reduce financial month-end closing processing time, speeds up reporting and data retrieval process. Customer Relationship Program (CRM) the information management process, the multichannel integration process, the value creation process, the strategy development process and the performance assessment process. The fundamental to a successful CRM strategy requires seamless customer-centric processes, supported by integrated technology across the enterprise and its supply chain which provide the right information at the right time. To ensure that technology solutions support CRM, CRM tools must be making trade offs in flexibility, customizability, cost, convenience and speed of deployment; certainly it must match to the needs of the business. However, CRM tool is just a supplement to CRM strategy, appropriate strategy and excellent implementation is essential for a successful CRM.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Operations Management - Research Paper Example Batch production processing; Ã¢â¬Å"Involves the manufacture of medium size lots of the same product. The lots may be produced only once or they may be produced at regular intervals. Lot sizes and the frequency of production of a single item is tied up with the inventory control policiesÃ¢â¬ (National Institute of Technology Calicut, n.d. pg. 3) which is very evident with Stickley FurnitureÃ¢â¬â¢s leveled manufacturing process. Job-shop as a manufacturing system is also present in the company evident with the seven master cabinet makers that handle customized orders. The use of batch in the operation of production processing of Stickley Furniture is also evident with its manufacturing practice. It was cited in the problem that its production process Ã¢â¬Å"begin[s] with sawing operations where large boards received from luber mills are cut into smaller operationÃ¢â¬ . Then there are subsequent Ã¢â¬Å"Subsequent operations [that] provide additional cuts for specific jobsÃ¢â¬ (pg. 688). This subsequent operations involve Ã¢â¬Å"gluing some of the pieces together; they will end up as tops of tables, desks, dressers, or similar item. Large presses hold 20 to 30 glued sections at a time. Other piece that will become table or chair legs, chair backs or other items go through various shaping operations. Next comes a series of sanding operations .... some pieces may require drilling or mortising some items require carving, which involves highly skilled workersÃ¢â¬ . This clearly indicates that workers are divided into deparments to do certain jobs which is a characteristic of a batch production processing with sub assemblies of job-shop or customized functions. In this production set-up Ã¢â¬Å"each worker is responsible for cheking his her quality, as well as the quality of materials received from preceding operations, and to report any deficienciesÃ¢â¬ (pg. 688). 2. How does management keep track of job status and location during production? Furniture p arts which are still works in progress are being monitored through bar codes. After workers assemble the various components, either into subassemblies or sometimes directly to other components to obtain completed pieces, each item is stamped with the date of production,type of job and their location. Careful records are kept so that if a piece is ever returned for repairs, complete instructions are available to enable repair people to closely match the the original piece. When a particular operation is finished (such as sawing or sanding), the operator removes a bar code sticker and delivers it to the scheduling office where it is scanned into the computer, thereby enabling production control to keep track of progress on a job, and to know its location on the shop. 3. Suppose the company has just received an order for 40 mission oak dining room sets. Briefly list the the kinds of information the company will need to plan, schedule and process this job. First, per companyÃ¢â¬â¢s le vel production policy, the inventory has first to be checked if there are any mission oak dining room set remaining. If there are, their numbers should be should be deducted from the intended number of production. The materials are then made availabe and prepared which in this case are mission oak lumbers. The mission oak boards are inspected and marked for knots locations and other possible defect that may be found on the board before feeding it into the saw. The saw has a computer-controlled Ã¢â¬Å"
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Characteristics of Public Health Summary Measures - Essay Example Additionally, it will indicate how these characteristics contribute to and improve our understanding of diseases burden in the population. One of the characteristics that I believe a public health summary measures should possess is absolute or relative change. This should be in term of health status for a given period of time. For example, if the mortality rate is 10 percent in a given location for a certain month, then in the next month it increases to 12 percent, this indicates an absolute increase infant mortality (Zack, 1993). Measures should be taken to ensure that there is a reduction in relative change in infant mortality which is a useful measure of the public health. This will reduce the cost of living since the fund that would be used to cater for infant mortality will be used in other economic growth activities and increase in Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The second characteristic is validity, which is a measure that indicates the health status of an individual like a report of health indicating as excellent, good, and poor among others means of rating. This means a record for this validity should be kept where it reflects a change in the health status of individuals (Murray, 1994). This characteristic will be of importance since when one visit a health care then his or her status will be known and intensive care will be undertaken depending on the report. The third characteristic is that population should be sensitive to major health changes for example in the case where alcohol and tobacco taxation is increased. This means the reduction in the consumption of alcohol and tobacco in the location, will be a measure to improve the health of individuals by addressing mental health, chronic diseases among others (McKenna and Michaud, 2005).Ã Ã
Factors and Criteria That Determine Which Brand of Mobile Phones Will Top Today and Which Brand Will Peak after That - Essay Example Each cell phone company tries hard to produce cell phones that are acceptable to most consumers in order to gain a better share of the market (Kushchu, 2007). This competition has led to great innovation that has seen mobile phones with great features such as MP3 and video players, cameras, wireless internet, games, and application among others playing a significant part in attracting more customers. Mobile phone innovation has come a long way and the future still looks bright, with the innovation of smart phones taking the mobile phone market by storm in the recent past. Changing consumer needs over the years have been very fundamental in the revolution of the mobile phone industry (Kerlinger, and Lee, 2000). Initially, mobile phones were only used for voice communications and text messages. With time however, consumer needs begun to influence the industry to change as companies sought to bow to consumer demands. Consumers prefer mobile phones that allow them to share information an d other multimedia devices such as images and music, have internet access and entertainment. Global mobile phone sales account for up to 60% of all electronic sales (Liu, 2002). This implies the growing demand for mobile phones across the world. With thousands of mobile phone manufactures and different brands around the world, consumers are spoilt for choice over which brands to buy. There are however various factors that determine consumer decisions on which cell phone brands to purchase. It is these factors that determine which mobile phone brands will be at peak at any given time. Mobile phone brands that have the feature that consumers want are likely to stay at the peak of the industry as compared to... This paper approves that global mobile phone sales account for up to 60% of all electronic sales. This implies the growing demand for mobile phones across the world. With thousands of mobile phone manufactures and different brands around the world, consumers are spoilt for choice over which brands to buy. There are however various factors that determine consumer decisions on which cell phone brands to purchase. It is these factors that determine which mobile phone brands will be at peak at any given time. Mobile phone brands that have the feature that consumers want are likely to stay at the peak of the industry as compared to less innovative brands. Despite selection of mobile phones being a subjective issue with most consumers having different opinions, there are various factors that are common to a majority of consumers. These include price, value of the brand, interface of the cell phone, and properties and features of a mobile phone. This report makes a conclusion that best selling mobile phones are the ones that meet the demands of consumers with regard to the factors identified above. The factors affecting consumer demands for cell phones are likely to change from time to time in to the future as the technology environment changes. The key factor to determine which mobile phone brand will be at peak, both presently and in the future is the fact that only those brands that respond to consumer demands at any particular time will be best selling brands.
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Ethics case - Essay Example dy of a lady named Lisa Michaels who is a Certified Public Accountant (CPA) and presently works with Home and Personal Care Products as Finance Manager. She is an experienced and dutiful employee with a very good reputation for honesty and depth of analysis skills. In this case, Lisa faces the challenge of identifying loopholes in the financial matters between her own company Home and Personal Care Products and a company it acquired named Prestige Fragrance Company. Lisa has concerns over evaluation of the assets of the acquired company and Mr. Anderson, who is also a CPA and Controller of the merger on behalf of Prestige Fragrance Company has not managed to address LisaÃ¢â¬â¢s concerns satisfactorily. Lisa thinks that the costs have been capitalized by Prestige Fragrance Company whereas they should principally be not. The ethical challenge for Lisa is to find answers to her queries without tarnishing the relationship between the parent company and the acquired company. Key stakeholders in the case include everybody working in and associated with both companies i.e. Home and Personal Care Products, and Prestige Fragrance Company in general, and the controllers of financial operations of the two companies i.e. Lisa and Mr. Anderson in particular. Lisa might lose her job if her claims are based on weak foundations and if she cannot find proof in support of her accusations that she has not yet openly made. Mr. Anderson, on the other hand, who is also a CPA and is respected a lot by the Board of Directors, risks losing his job as well as image if he is found guilty of capitalization of costs or presentation of liabilities as assets to Home and Personal Care Products. Stakeholders also include the people and companies that have purchased shares of the two companies because any profit or loss made by any of the two companies has a direct impact on the value of their shares. In order to maximize the likelihood of a successful merger, it is imperative that both companies
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Educational Enquiry Education Article Analysis - Essay Example The article by Myhill is somewhat more vague in its statement of purpose in the abstract. Ã It essentially states that the purpose of this article was to understand Ã¢â¬Å"secondary-aged writerÃ¢â¬â¢s compositional processes, both as observed in a naturalistic classroom settings and through [Ã¢â¬ ¦] interviewsÃ¢â¬ . From the reports of the findings, however, it is clear that the researcher was interested in forming particular profiles for particular types of writers, seeing what kinds of writers fit in to them, and understand better how self-aware students were about their writing process.The article by Myhill is somewhat more vague in its statement of purpose in the abstract. Ã It essentially states that the purpose of this article was to understand Ã¢â¬Å"secondary-aged writerÃ¢â¬â¢s compositional processes, both as observed in a naturalistic classroom settings and through [Ã¢â¬ ¦] interviewsÃ¢â¬ . From the reports of the findings, however, it is clear that the resear cher was interested in forming particular profiles for particular types of writers, seeing what kinds of writers fit in to them, and understand better how self-aware students were about their writing process. The Cremin et. al. abstract did not specify any particular scope or scale in terms of age, beyond indicating that all students in the study were primary students, nor on the size of the study, and its applicability to other fields. Ã It was, however, fairly specific in indicating it was only interested in drama writing. as a support for developing writing skills. The Myhill article is very specific on the scale of the research, indicating that it was carried out on only Ã¢â¬Å"38 childrenÃ¢â¬ from Ã¢â¬Å"Year 9 and Year 11Ã¢â¬ (Myhill 2010). It also recognizes the preliminary nature of this research, indicating that the Ã¢â¬Å"implications of [the articleÃ¢â¬â¢s] findingsÃ¢â¬ need Ã¢â¬Å"further confirmatory research (Myhill 2010). With how vague the scope and scal e of the research is in the Cremin et. al. article, it is very difficult to say whether it was appropriate to answer the research questions presented in the abstracts. The fact that the article gives an overview of two pilot study and a larger main study suggests that it is probably appropriate for the research question, given the narrow focus on drama. The scope and scale of the Myhill article, especially noting its relatively small sample size, are insufficient to actually form strong evidence for the research question. This is acceptable, however, given that the author explicitly states the purpose of this article was to reach preliminary answers and encourage further research. The Cremin et. al. abstract clearly had accessibility as a primary concern: it uses relatively simple language and no academic jargon, though it did have complex sentence structures. The Myhill article was significantly more complex, using terms like Ã¢â¬Å"post hocÃ¢â¬ (after the fact) and seemed inten ded for a more professional audience (Myhill 2010). Neither of these articles had attached keywords. Some appropriate key words for both articles would be: writing, writing theory, educational theory, education and pedagogy, because all of these issues are central to both articles. The Cremin article should have individual keywords including drama and primary education, while the Myhill article should include words including secondary education, writing composition and qualitative study to give a good indication as to its subject matter, focus and sample demographics. Upon searching for some of these key words, it was interesting to see that some were much more specific and helpful than others. The keyword Ã¢â¬Å"pedagogyÃ¢â¬ for instance, returned tens of thousands of results on a truly gigantic range of education related topics, as one would perhaps imagine given the
Monday, September 23, 2019
Exam questions - Essay Example Furthermore, the chapter reviews the success of fixed capital requirements in terms of maintaining the relations between desired capital and risk taking. It also analyzes ways through which banks reduce effectiveness by taking to riskier assets. Capital requirements are also referred to as capital adequacy or regulatory capital. This is the amount of capital that commercial banks hold due to the requirements of the financial regulator. These requirements are necessary for the financial industry; to ensure that commercial banks do not accumulate excess leverage which leads to insolvency. Commercial banks have some behavioral preference when allocating loans to individuals. However, the capital constraints can make the banks to review the behavioral preference. This means that the financial regulator could utilize the strong constraints in capital adequacy to; review the fluctuations of the Micro economy and direct the economy to the required direction through the financial intermediaries like banks (Altunbas)1. Based on the approval of the Basel II model, this discourse defines the research question in the following way: Are rigid pressures exerted by minimum capital requirements efficient in minimizing the risk-taking behavior of banks? The framework of the Basel II structure in the subprime crisis forms the basis within which professionals question the proposals. This area covers the inadequacy of the level of capital requirements. The focus on examining the efficiency of regulatory capital requirements during the implementation of the proposals in Basel I model report executed from 2002 is part of the entire discourse. However, the discourse does not aim at testing the Basel I framework. Instead, it assess the efficiency of the regulatory pressure in relation to the degree of capital cushion in cutting down on the risk-taking behavior of financial institutions in the
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Murdering Mckinley Essay The main factors that are presented in the book include how the assassination affected America and its society, RooseveltÃ¢â¬â¢s response to the assassination and his succession to the presidency, the reasons for committing the murder, and the evidence that supports the cases of the assassin and the district attorney. I found this book to be a well-organized and accurate account of the assassination as well as the surrounding events. I found the events that occurred to be extremely wrong and hurtful to the American society. The means by which the assassin achieved the political changes that he desired were completely immoral and threatening to America. Rauchway describes William McKinleyÃ¢â¬â¢s assassination in the year of 1901 by explaining to the reader the motives of the assassin, the reaction of the district attorney and society, and the response that Roosevelt had to suddenly becoming the President of the United States. On September 6, 1901 President William McKinley was tragically assassinated at the Pan American Exposition in Buffalo, NY by Leon F. Czolgosz. President McKinley ran the politics of state supported capitalism. He was a strong conservative, which was reflected in his successes of reopening factories and putting individuals back to work. Czolgosz disliked McKinleyÃ¢â¬â¢s politics and wanted McKinley himself to fall in order to prove America was vulnerable and to strip the American people of any illusions of safety. Although the motives behind CzolgoszÃ¢â¬â¢s actions were complet ely immoral, he did have well supported logic behind these actions. The case ultimately went to trial, and the district attorney tried to prove that the assassin succumbed to radicalism through his anger of his social standing. Some would argue that Czolgosz was mentally insane and delusional and that he should receive mercy. At the time of the assassination the American society was becoming more urban and more complex, leading people to have less control over their own fates. People soon began to believe that a sane and healthy social environment would lead to a sane and healthy United States population. Movements to sustain these ideas grew and flourished during the time of RooseveltÃ¢â¬â¢s presidency. This led to liberal political ideology, which soon became kno wn as progressivism. The main impact that McKinleyÃ¢â¬â¢s assassination had on Americans was that it pressured them to be more clear and up front on their opinions of a working class which included a large number of immigrants. It also encouraged the people to voice their opinion on race in the developing democracy. The organization of the text and manner by which the facts were presented by the author made it easy to follow and understand. I found the book to be unbiased while representing all sides of the argument fairly. The book contains evidence of the details given and the author sometimes uses other historians to back uphisevidenceasagoodwaytosupporthisstatements. Tome,therealbenefitof reading this book was that it helped to expand my knowledge of the actual events of the assassination as well the effects that it had upon America and RooseveltÃ¢â¬â¢s new role as President. I feel that the arguments presented by Rauchway regarding whether or not the assassination was a positive or negative experience for America were mostly equal. After reading the book I gained a better understanding of the affects of the murder. I am able to understand that although McKinleyÃ¢â¬â¢s death was a tragedy, ultimately America was able to flourish through the progressivism supported through RooseveltÃ¢â¬â¢s policies. However, I feel very strongly that CzolgoszÃ¢â¬â¢s act of murder was completely inhumane and very disrespectful to America and its people. As a whole, the book was a very well written description of the murder of William Mckinley and of the affects it imposed on the country. The murder of McKinley had many lasting impacts on American society. Through the assassination, America recieved a push towards progressivism, and became a wake up call to American politics. Although it was a misfortunate act which was committed, it did help America to grow and become stronger as a nation. Roosevelt took a strong stance as the new President and bravely faced the challenge of leading America with courage and knowledge. He acted upon constituentÃ¢â¬â¢s fears so that they would become supporters of his efforts to rid radical dissent. Some say Czolgosz acted upon his own insanity, however his decisions were based on logic and his life ended in the electric chair and his remains were doused in sulfuric acid. When he committed the crime he was aware that there would be extreme consequences for his actions. This showed America how far some people would go to achieve the political changes they desired. As Americans today look back on the tragic event, it is seen as one of the most devastating days in American history. However, in the end America found the strength and courage to push through the sorrow and hurt and eventually grow from the death that birthed a new nation. Eric Rauchway presents this tragic event in American history with a hopeful and optimistic tone as he emphasizes the positive growth that America managed to obtain through RooseveltÃ¢â¬â¢s policies. His account is easy to understand yet still challenges the reader to think more deeply about the implications of the event.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Why Has Evians Us Market Share Continually Decreased Marketing Essay To begin with, the customer indifference is one of the main factors to be considered. Compared with the colas, Evian is premium price bottled water, and it is failed to realise that customers in different regions will make different reactions according to their preferences. In Europe, customers accept the types of bottled water and pay a premium for the Evian brand gladly. By contrast, in the U.S. water market, customers place little value on this premium and the cheapest bottled water is always selected in stores. Danone does not satisfy the US customers needs, and therefore, the decreasing demand for Evian in the US water market will affect its market share. Secondly, Danone is weak of the distribution capability. On one hand, Danone mastered its direct-to-store delivery system well, but the distribution strategy is not suitable for the U.S. water market. The U.S. water market needs a giant colarun distribution network which includes access to rented stored shelves. On the other hand, the colas and other water brands all have good distribution capabilities, while Danone is inferior. It is rarely to see Evian locate in such points of sale for bottled water, like vending machines, groceries, stores, street vendors, convenience outlets, and etc. Therefore, the distribution deficiencies will lead Danone in a low volume in the US water market. Thirdly, pricing is another factor which should be considered. The colas resource mostly comes from local tap water, so the initial cost of the colas is lower, and it is priced at an appropriate level. In contrast, Evian Nature Spring Water comes from French Alps, so the initial cost of Evian is high, and it is priced at a premium level. In consequence, higher price of the bottled water may not be accepted by the U.S. customers, then the market share dwindles. Finally, it is seems that Danone is lack of advertising. In evaluating Danones strategy for gaining U.S. market share, present the positives and negatives for remaining a single enterprise entity and going it alone. Danones strategy to go it alone in the U.S. water market has the positives and negatives. Danones go it alone U.S. water market strategy means that Evian becomes a niche product brand, and its price keeps at a premium level. Under the strategy, Evian can extend its brand to a global extent with a healthy edge, and also can protect its unique Glacier brand effectively. Besides these, it can create business opportunities in the U.S. water market, and increase its marginal revenue for Danone as well. However, because of the premium price of the Evians bottled water, Evian may hold lower market share in low volume in the U.S. water market, compared with the lower price water brands. Another Danones go-it-alone U.S. water market strategy is that taking over local-source spring water enterprise. After acquisition, it is clear that Danone can get source locally rather than from France, therefore Danone can reduce the costs, and it will be more competitive against NestlÃ © and the colas for market share in the high volume and price-driven market. Another advantage under this strategy is that Danone can build-out its lines production and distribution after acquisitions. However, there are also some problems after acquisition. The strategy here will need a large amount of money to invest from Danone, and the return on the investment will need a long period to get the money back. Given Evians lack of success in the US market, what would be the ramifications of Danone exiting the U.S. bottled water market altogether? Compared with other water brands, Evian is premium price bottled water, and it is failed to realise that customers in the U.S. water market prefer to choose cheaper bottled water, not like the customers preferences in Europe. Therefore, the low volume of Evians bottled water sale may lead to the decreasing market share and Evians lack of success in the U.S. market. As a consequence of this condition, Danones get out of the U.S. Market strategy may make some ramifications. If Danone exit the U.S. bottled water market, Danone may lose the business opportunities in the U.S. market, and may lose much more market share in such a large market as well. Besides, Danone will probably run counter to its global marketing strategy, and it will not drive Danones global sales and extension of global brand. Furthermore, Danone will save the entry expenditures if exiting from the U.S. market, and it can invest on the market where the glacier premium is recognized and also gain the market share from those countries.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Premature Failure Of Road Network Bahria town ltd started its development works in 1996 as a joint partner with Bahria foundation initially British Columbia were the consultants on the project. The extraordinary progress rate and high quality consultancy work of British Columbia (pvt) ltd was thought to be a big hurdle in the progress rate, eventually the agreement with the consultants terminated and Bahria Town (pvt) Ltd formed its own consultant wing. Unfortunately the consultancy wing failed to develop because of incompetent individuals who can really invest their heart and souls to address core issues .Site management and technical / top supervision issues were ignored .Today Bahria Town is facing problem of premature failure in its road network. Most of the road network has not been under projected traffic for which it has been designed; even then road failures are prominent .Most common failures depictive are settlement of road, flexural cracking, weathering of the road network. The mechanism of road failure is quite complex and it is tedious to identify the root cause of failure. The approach adopted was to analyze road network truly depictive of premature pavement failures, the representative sections were selected from the road network under study .Various field and laboratory test were performed on each section to determine the cause of premature pavement failures. The investigation revealed that mix produced from asphalt plant fails to meet specifications. The compaction of HMA and subsequent road layers is not adequate. The source gradation for aggregate base is improper .The Plasticity of fines is not in tolerance range. Pavement structural design depths were not executed on site besides poor workmanship and improper patching procedures. Keywords: Premature Failure, Flexural Cracking, Weathering, Source gradation. Undertaking I certify that research work titled To investigate the causes of Premature Failure of Road Network of Bahria Town to propose its Remedial Measuresis my own work. The work has not been presented elsewhere for assessment. Where material has been used from other sources it has been properly acknowledged/ referred. Tehseen Ellahi 2k9-MSc-Trans-05 Acknowledgements This research work is obviously a result of the initial encouragement and support in admission to the MS Transportation (Taxila) by Ehsan ul Haq, the Director General Planning and Design, Bahria Town (pvt) Ltd. Extraordinary help and support form Rana Zulfikar Ahmed Khan , Site Manager Bahria Town (pvt) Ltd.Continuous encouragement, and valuable input from Dr. M. A. Kamal, Director Taxila Institute of Transportation Engineering (TITE) and Dean, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology (UET) Taxila. There guidance, comments and suggestions from time to time, are gratefully acknowledged. 1.2.2 Rigid Pavements In rigid pavements the stress is transmitted to the sub-grade through beam/slab effect. Rigid pavements contain sufficient beam strength to be able to bridge over the localized sub-grade failures and areas of inadequate support. Factors effecting Pavement Performance There are numerous factors influencing the performance of a pavement, the following five are considered the most influential (Transportation research board, England; April 1985) 1.3.1 Traffic Traffic is the most important factor affecting pavement performance. The performance of pavements is mostly affected by the loading scale, arrangement and the number of load repetitions. The damage caused per pass to a pavement by an axle is defined relative to the damage per pass of a standard axle load, which is defined as a 80 kN single axle load (E80). Thus a pavement is designed to withstand a certain number of standard axle load repetitions that will result in a certain terminal condition of deterioration.(Kamal M.A. et al., 2009) 1.3.2 Moisture Moisture significantly reduces the supporting ability of gravel materials, especially the sub grade. Moisture enters the pavement structure through capillary action. The resulting action is the wet surface of particles, excessive movement of particles and dislodgment which ultimately results in pavement failures. (Terrel 1990) 1.3.3 Sub grade The sub grade is the lower layer of soil that supports the wheel loads. If the sub grade is not strong enough the pavement will show flexibility and finally the pavement will fail. Pavement will fail to perform ideally if the variation in particles behavior is not catered for in the design. 1.3.4 Construction quality Pavement performance is affected by poor quality construction, inaccurate pavement thicknesses, and adverse moisture conditions. These conditions stress the need for skilled staff and the importance of good inspection and quality control procedures during construction. Pavement performance is dependent on where, when and how maintenance is applied. No matter how good the pavement is built, it will deteriorate with time based upon the mentioned factors. The timing of maintenance is very important, if a pavement is allowed to deteriorate to a very poor condition, as illustrated by point B, then the added life compared with point A, is typically about 2 to 3 years. This added life is about 10 percent of the total life. The cost of repairing the road at B is four times of the cost required at A. The delay of maintenance hold implications, in that for the cost of repairing one poorly weathered road (Point B), four roads at point A would have to be postponed, which would mean that in a few years the rehabilitation cost could be 16 times as much. Thus, differing maintenance because of budget constraints will result in a significant financial penalty within a few years.(www.nra.co.za/live/content.php) History Bahria town is a modern township planned on an inspiration drawn from the home of American Society of civil engineers i.e the city of Reston, Virginia. The designing of its town ship is based on the most modern and strict criterion. It is located between the GT road and Islamabad Bahria town borders Safari Park on the northern side and is bounded to the south and west by Soan river and the Korang respectively. Town planning for Bahria Town has been done taking full advantage of the layout of the natural ground. Roads have been designed according to the traffic intensity rush hours. They have been standardized as 30, 40, 50, 60, 80 and Main Boulevards with the configuration of Pavement sidewalks and green areas.(www.bahriatown.com/index.php) Problem Statement Bahria Town (pvt) Ltd development represents a unique mark of distinction for Pakistan. Over a period of decade Bahria Town has emerged as Asias largest private property developers. The dilemma is that the capital involved is huge and to meet market demands common Engineering practices quality assurances are being ignored on account of time savings. One of the major problem , that Bahria Town that face today is related to premature failure of road network. Objectives The main objective of the study was to highlight the causes of pavement failures and to propose the remedial measures. Methodology Reconnaissance survey in study area to identify problems. Selection of test sections based upon road classification and distresses for deep testing analysis. Extraction of samples from the test sections for various laboratory testing. Comparison of various parameters between damaged and undamaged portions of test sections. Recommendations on the basis of investigation. Chapter 3 Chapter 3 Introduction to Study Area Pavement Evaluation Process Pavement evaluation is the first step in the development of pavement rehabilitation alternatives for the project .It is the process of learning the existing pavement system to understand the extent and the cause of problems prior to developing a rehabilitation plan.(www.pavementinteractive.org) Evaluation at Road Network Level Monitoring of the network is carried out at on a network level to define the status of an entire pavement network as part of the pavement management system .To achieve the said objective the road network of Bahria Town was divided in different zones .Preliminary reconnaissance survey was carried out to access the pavement condition of road network .The object was to confine the study and help prioritize and select the evaluation at the project levels. The road network under study is Safari valley. (Design report on Bahria Town, ESS.I.AAR Consultants) The justification behind selecting this study zone is that this zone is fully developed and in the possession of the residents therefore it is more realistic to study the road network performance of this zone. History The idea of Safari Valley was conceptualized in 2000 confirming to planning parameters of the cities of Ruston, Virginia, USA. Ruston being the American society of civil engineers has been planned in the most beautiful manner, the next year Safari Valley lunched another housing project. One of the aims of lunching this scheme was to provide a modern housing scheme with all the amenities for the general public at an affordable cost. Any middle class person desirous of buying a plot in Islamabad/Rawalpindi could not do so as the price in Islamabad/Rawalpindi is beyond the reach of the common man.. This scheme is planned and designed for the low-income people of the country to provide them affordable housing.(www.bahriatown.com/index.php) Location The Safari Valley is located in Southern part of Rawalpindi City, adjacent to Takht Pari forest on Japan Road. This site falls in Mauza Gali. The main access to this scheme is through Japan Road from G.T. Road, 3 Km from High Court towards Lahore.120 wide newly constructed Bahria Expressway along River Soan is another access to this project which is completed a year ago.(www.bahriatown.com/index.php) Untitled Figure 3: Study area Location in road network Road Network The proposed colony has been planned according to the contemporary principles of planning and design criteria of Tehsil Municipal Administration (TMA) for private housing schemes. Following three types of roads has been proposed. Primary Roads 120 Feet wide 80 Feet wide Collector Roads 65 Feet wide Streets 40 Feet wide The safari valley has 37.880 km of 40 wide roads, 6.083km of 65 wide roads, 1.23 km of 80 wide roads and 4.0 km of 120 wide roads. General Considerations It is desired by the consultant to provide the sub grade strength of the area in general for the construction of the internal roads. The purpose of the structural design is to limit the stresses induced in the sub grade by the traffic to a safe level at which the sub grade deformation is insignificant whilst at the same time ensuring that the road pavement layers themselves do not fail in any way within a specified period of time .In most design methods it is assumed that the routine and periodic maintenance is carried out during the design period of the road and that at the end of the design period , relatively low level of detoriation has occurred.(Structural design of Pavement at Safari valley, SS Soil explore Consultants) For the design of the flexible pavement the following factors should be kept in mind for guidance Economic Considerations Effect of climate Variability in the material Properties Construction Control Uncertainty in traffic forecasting Variability in material properties and construction control is generally much greater than desired by the engineer and must be taken into account explicitly in the design process. In practice only it is actually the variability of the sub grade strength that is considered and all other factors are controlled by setting out minimum acceptable values for the key properties by means of the specifications. Nevertheless, it is the task of the designer to estimate the likely variations in layer thickness and material strengths so that the realistic target values and tolerances can be set in the specifications to ensure the satisfactory road performances can be guaranteed as far as possible. Design basis The purpose of the structural design is to limit the stresses induced in the sub grade by the traffic. Estimating the amount of traffic and the cumulative number of equivalent standard axles that will use the road over the selected design life assessing the strength of the sub grade soil over which the road is built by selecting the most economical combination of the pavement materials and layer thickness that will provide the satisfactory service over the design life of the pavement when appropriate maintenance is carried out. In following paragraphs the component layers of a flexible pavement are referred in these terms: Surfacing This is the upper most layer of the pavement and will normally consist of bituminous surface dressing or a premixed bituminous material .When premixed materials are laid in two layers these are known as wearing course and base course (or binder course) Road Base This is the main load spreading layer of the pavement .It will normally consist of crushed stone or gravel ,or a gravelly soil ,decomposed rocks, sand and sandy clays stabilized with cement ,lime or bitumen. Sub Base This is the secondary load spreading layer underlying the road base .It will normally consist of material of lower quality than that used in the road base such as un processed natural gravels ,gravel-sand or gravel-sand-clay. This layer also serves as a spreading layer preventing contamination of the road base by the sub grade material Capping Layer Where very weak soils are encountered capping layer is sometimes necessary. This may consist of better quality sub grade material imported from elsewhere or existing sub grade material improved by mechanical and lime stabilization. Sub Grade This is the upper layer of the natural soil, which may be undisturbed local materials or may be soil excavated elsewhere and placed as fill. In either case it is compacted during the construction to give it adequate stability. Traffic In the present case no definite traffic pattern can be estimated as the construction period extends to a longer span .During the construction stage, the maximum traffic even over loaded trucks carrying mostly the construction material would apply. After the construction phase .the internal roads of the proposed project are subjected only to the light car traffic, which have very little destructive effect. The Sub grade Condition Following is the recommendations for the structural design of the bituminous surfaced roads for the proposed project. The existing sub grade at the site comprises of A 4 soil with PI range of 5 to 8.Determining the sub grade strength is necessary for the road construction and required by the design engineer for the internal light traffic roads, which are required to carry up to (assumed traffic) 0.5 million cumulative equivalent standard axles in one direction for the design life of 10 Years. Field investigation and Sampling All the field tests necessary for the design of the flexible pavements have been carried out .Test pit locations were selected so that overall picture of the sub surface can be examined .To do this samples from the different locations collected for the classification and California bearing ratio (CBR) .Following field and laboratory tests have been carried out in the detail Field density and moisture content Gradation analysis Sieve analysis Hydrometric analysis Hydrometric analysis AASHTO Soil Classification Laboratory compaction test Laboratory CBR on soaked conditions Appreciation of the sub grade condition The strength of the sub grade is commonly assessed in the form of California bearing ratio of the sub grade soil and is dependent on the type of the soil, its density and its moisture content The likely in situ strength of the sub grade is difficult to assess directly but its value can be obtained from the relationship between CBR, density and moisture content which must be measured in the laboratory for the soil in question, and form the knowledge of in situ density and equilibrium moisture content of the soil under the road. The density of the sub grade soil can be controlled under the road within limits by compaction at suitable moisture content at the time of the construction. The equilibrium moisture content of the sub grade soil is governed by the local climate and the depth of the water table below the road surfaces. For designing the thickness of the road pavement, the strength of the sub grade should be taken as that of the sub grade soil at the moisture content equal to the wettest moisture condition likely to occur in the sub grade after the road is opened to traffic. In the present case, field as well as the laboratory testing of different locations was carried out for gradation index and strength parameters and soaked CBR etc. The result of these tests are attached at the end of the report The CBR test shows the value of 3.5% having the representative design value of 90% and 95% modified by the AASHTO density .CBR value is considered to be unsatisfactory for the design of the flexible pavement .Therefore it is strongly recommended to provide capping layer over the existing sub grade soil to provide structural support and improve drainage conditions at the site. The thickness comes out to be 8 inches. Design Recommendations The pavement design of the internal roads of safari valley was calculated using the AASHTO Interim guide .Details of which are below: Method # 01 Out of the different methods available for calculating the road design, which cater for the repetition of the standard axle loads during the design life of the various traffic configurations expected on the road .This method caters for the site conditions and type of traffic likely to use the roads after the construction. The pavement design has been worked out as per Overseas Road Note No 31 (Transport and road research Laboratory, TRRL; Road note 31) The Local soil is moderately plastic for which average soaked CBR value was calculated to be 3.5 % and the same has been incorporated in the design calculations .In case of borrow /selected fill material is to be used for the making of the roads .The Laboratory CBR for that soil should not be less than 3.5 % against 96 hrs soaking. Method # 02 The pavement design of the internal roads of different categories is calculated using the simplified method as given in civil engineering handbook by Leonard Church Urquhart of which is given below. Design Procedure Using the graph (annexure A) against the clayey silt conforming to A-4 Soil and CBR of 3.5 % the total thickness of pavement above sub base is 15 inches. Keeping a minimum thickness of 8 inches for the base course and the wearing surface the sub base is required to be 7 inches. Since method 1 gave higher values method 1 was adopted. Flexible Pavement Distresses Roads have become important in our lives as a sole mean of communication. Modern roads are smooth, so people can travel easily from one place to another. Maintenance of road network is very important to ensure its continued efficiency and reliability. Normally roads are damaged due to environment affects, vehicular loadings and moisture.(Asphalt Institute , MS 16) Asphalt pavement distresses can generally be classified as one of the following type: Cracking Distortion Disintegration Skid hazard Surface treatment distresses Distresses caused can be related to: Wheel loads Environment Poor drainage Material deficiencies Construction related deficiencies External causes(Utilities) Cracking Cracking takes many forms .To make proper repairs, it is first necessary to determine the cause of cracking .Maintenance procedures generally depend upon the cause of distress, the crack width and the amount of cracking in the affected area. Reflective cracks These are cracks in asphalt overlays that reflect the crack pattern in the pavement structure underneath. The pattern may be longitudinal, transverse, diagonal or block. Reflective cracks are caused by vertical and horizontal movements in the pavement beneath the overlay, induced by expansion and contraction with temperature or moisture changes. They can also be caused by traffic or earth movement or by loss of moisture in sub grade by high clay content. Edge cracks These are longitudinal cracks 30 cm or so .They are caused due to lack of lateral support, settlement or yielding of the material beneath the cracked area .This may be the result of poor drainage ,frost heave or shrinkage from drying of the adjoining earth. They may be accelerated by concentration of heavy traffic near the edge of the pavement as well as heavy vegetation near the pavement edge. Block Cracking They are series of interconnected cracks forming the series of large blocks, 1 to 3 m. Frequently they are caused by volume change of the fine aggregate asphalt mix that have a high content of low penetration asphalt and adsorptive aggregate ,daily temperature cycles and aged asphalt. Block cracking is not load related. Alligator Cracking They are cracks that constitute to form series of blocks .They can be caused by various reasons such as excess deflection, sub surface moisture conditions, thin asphalt surface, excessive overloading, in adequate pavement design. If the asphalt surface is thin alligator cracking can quickly develop into potholing. Slippage Crack They are crescent shaped cracks resulting from the horizontal forces induced by the traffic. They result from the lack of bond between the surface layer and the courses beneath. The lack of bond may be due to dust, oil, rubber, dirt water or other non adhesive materials between the two courses. The Slippage cracks may result from the mixtures having a high sand content, as well as due to improper compaction. Linear Cracking This category includes categories such as joint cracks, construction joints, shoulder joint cracks and diagonal cracks. Transverse and diagonal cracks can result from low temperature contraction of the pavement or from the shrinkage of the cement bound base or sub grade soils .Longitudinal cracks in the wheel path may be fatigue related and eventually progress into alligator and a random occurring Longitudinal crack can be indicative of the sideways yielding sub grade or fill area. The cause of joint cracks (thermal and longitudinal) can be related to the thermal stresses or insufficient compaction. They can also be caused by a weak bond in the joint. Distortion Pavement distortion is the result of asphalt layer instability or granular base and sub base weakness. Distortion takes a number of forms: rutting, shoving, corrugation, depression and up heave. Rutting Ruts are channelized depressions in the wheel tracks of the pavement surface. Rutting results from consolidation, lateral movement of the sub grade, aggregate base or asphalt layers under traffic load. Rutting may occur in the sub grade and sub base due to insufficient design thickness, lack of compaction or weakness caused by moisture infiltration, down ward and lateral movement of the weak asphalt mixture under heavy wheel loads. Corrugations and shoving Corrugations and shoving are form of plastic movement typified by ripples across the asphalt pavement surface. They occur in the asphalt mixes that lack mix stability. It may also be caused due to excessive moisture in the granular base, contamination due to oil spillage or lack of aeration when placing mixes using emulsified and cut back asphalts. Settlement or grade depression Depressions are low areas of limited size that may be accompanied by cracking. They may be caused by traffic over loading or by consolidation, settlement or failure of the lower pavement layers. Up heave or swell Up heave is the localized upward displacement of the pavement due to the swelling of the sub grade. Up heave is most commonly caused by the expansion of ice in the lower courses of the pavement or sub grade. It may also be caused by the swelling effect of the moisture on the expansive soil. Utility cut or patch failure This is the failure of the utility installation or of a repaired area in the existing pavement. They usually are caused by lack of adequate compaction of the back fill, base or asphalt patch materials. Patch failures may also result from poor installation techniques, inferior materials or failure of the surrounding materials or under lying pavement. Disintegration Disintegration is the breaking up of the pavement into small, loose fragments. If the problem is not addressed the pavement disintegrates further until rehabilitation is required. Raveling/Weathering This is the progressive separation of the aggregate particles from the pavement surface downwards and from the surface inwards. Raveling usually occurs in wheel paths while weathering is found in non traffic zones and it extends over all surface. Raveling is caused by lack of HMA compaction, construction of thin lift during the cold weather, dirty or disintegrating aggregates, too little asphalt in the mix or over heating of the asphalt mix. Raveling almost always requires the presence of both water and traffic to occur. Potholes Potholes are bowl shaped holes resulting from the localized disintegration. Most potholes occur in the pavements having thin asphalt concrete surface on an untreated aggregate base. Thin surfaces showing severe alligator cracking begin to lose the pieces of the asphalt out of the cracked area creating potholes. Skid Hazards One of the most common cause of the skid hazards in the asphalt pavement is a thin film of water on the pavement surface another is the thick film of water on the pavement surface that causes a high speed vehicle to hydro plane. Slipperiness may also develop from the surface contamination such as from oil spillage or certain type of clay etc. Bleeding or flushing Bleeding or flushing is the upward movement in the asphalt pavement. This results in the formation of film of asphalt on the surface. Bleeding is identified by the pavement surface with a stick, glassy appearance that may be sticky to touch and usually occurs in hot weather .The most common cause of bleeding is excess asphalt in one or more of the pavement courses .Also traffic may cause the over compaction of the asphalt layers, forcing the binder to the surface. Polished aggregate These are the aggregate particles on the surface of the pavement that have been polished smooth. Some aggregates, particularly lime stone become polished rather quickly under traffic. Some type of gravel are naturally polished and if they are used in the pavement surface without crushing they will be a skid hazard. These polished aggregates are quite slippery when they are wet. Surface Treatment Distresses Because of the construction procedures being used, surface treatments may develop some defects that dont occur in other type of pavement surfaces. These include loss of aggregate cover and streaking. Some of the asphalt pavement distresses such as corrugations, depressions, up heave, potholes and raveling occur most frequently in the pavement constructed with surface treatments. Loss of cover aggregate This distress is identified by the whipping off of aggregate by traffic from a surface treated pavement. Several things can cause loss of aggregate cover including weather too cool, fast traffic permitted on the new surface treatment too soon, a surface absorbing part of the asphalt, aggregates that are too dusty or too dry etc. Longitudinal / Transverse Streaking Longitudinal streaking is alternate lean and heavy lines of asphalt and/or aggregate running parallel to the center line of the road .Transverse streaking is the same phenomenon except that the direction is running transverse across the road way. Several things can cause longitudinal streaking including: improper height of the spray bar, incorrect asphalt pump speed, asphalt too cold, incorrect pump pressure etc. Transverse cracking is caused by spurts in the asphalt spray from the distributor spray bar. These spurs may be produced by improper pump speed, pulsation of the asphalt pump etc.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Interactions in the global political economy always result in outcomes such that winners and losers are produced in each political activity. These outcomes vary from country to country depending on factors governing the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economic and political environment. Outcomes here range from monetary and trade policy outcomes to outcomes from crises. It is a widely accepted view that outcomes in the global political economy are, most of the time, a result of economic as well as political factors. One of the influential political factors is concerned with institutions. According to North (1991), institutions act as constraints that shape interactions between politics, economics, and society. Furthermore, political institutions are important in initiating rules about policymaking process, weighing preferences of different interest groups, and determining the extent to which interest groups affect policies (Hiscox, 2008). In terms of trade, demands for trade policies from special i nterest groups are converted into policy consequences that affect how people behave, which in turn determines the winners and losers. In view of regime formation, domestic institutions such as electoral and political systems and the distribution of governmental powers are said to have an influence on multilateral regimes through credibility (Cowhey, 1993). Apart from this, whether a country is likely to implement free trade policies or not also largely depends on the type of political systems that country has; democracy, autocracy, or monarchy. In this essay, I would like to focus on the importance of domestic institutions especially electoral systems, political systems, and veto players in producing the trade policy and crises outcomes in the global politica... ...ther the Democrat party can accumulate enough support to replace the government. If not, in order to end this cycle, there might be a need to reconsider the compatibility of democracy with ThailandÃ¢â¬â¢s political structure. As seen, institutions such as electoral systems and veto players are an important factor in determining outcomes in the global political economy both in terms of trade policies and crises. Regarding trade policies, having a democratic regime is likely to bring about economic growth through trade liberalisation. In reference to tackling crises, democracies and autocracies have equal chance of experiencing a crisis; however, a democratic country tends to recover faster because it is relatively easy for the population to replace the unsuccessful leader. Ultimately, strong and stable domestic institutions are the foundation of a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s development.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
High school and college are both important institutions in many peoples' lives. These academic institutions are seen as places where identities are forged, friendships are made, important basic lessons are learned, and ideally, plans are made regarding both near and distant futures. High school and college are toted as places where post-pubescent adolescents are supposed to find out what exactly they want to do with their lives Ã¢â¬â a period of four to eight or more years where the groundwork for the rest of your life out in the Ã¢â¬Å"real worldÃ¢â¬ is laid out. Whether you want to be a social worker, a chemical engineer, or a teacher, high school and college are the places where you can learn about what you are interested in as well as where you can receive a basic education. High school and college are also the places where gender roles and stereotypes, especially in academics, begin to become glaringly obvious. In high school and especially in college, more of the curriculum is geared towards individual interests than in previous schooling environments. These specialized programs allow students to pursue things that they feel genuinely interested in, as well as allowing them to avoid those subjects that don't like. If someone is interested in taking an arts or a social studies class rather than an additional English class, they can usually do so without much trouble. In many cases, during the high school and college years, it is a widespread phenomenon that girls tend to lean more towards the Ã¢â¬Å"softerÃ¢â¬ subjects, such as English, art and social studies classes, while boys tend to lean toward science and mathematics. How do stereotypical gender stratifications affect the types of classes that members of each gender take? Do these ... ...nce courses. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 13(4), 435-466. Levine, P.B., & Zimmerman, D.J. (1995). The Benefit of additional high-school math and science classes for young men and women. Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, 13(2), 137-149. Kiefer, A.K., & Sekaquaptewa, D. . (2006). Implicit stereotypes and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s math performance: how implicit gender-math stereotypes influence womenÃ¢â¬â¢s susceptibility to stereotype threat. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43(1), 825-832. Good , C., Aronson, J., & Harder, J.A. (2008). Problems in the pipeline: stereotype threat and women's achievement in high-level math courses. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29, 17-28. Steele, J.R., & Ambady, N. (2006). Ã¢â¬Å"math is hard!Ã¢â¬ the effect of gender priming on womenÃ¢â¬â¢s attitudes . Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42, 428-436.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
The article ‘Rebirth of a Profession’ discusses the new Codes of Practice for social care workers and their employers
The article Ã¢â¬ËRebirth of a Profession' discusses the new Codes of Practice for social care workers and their employers, together with the accompanying register, which were published in September 2002 by the General Social Care Council (GSCC). It puts forward the view that this is the culmination of a twenty-year-old dream and the fulfilment of social worker's hopes. Within this assignment the author's reasons for this view and the quality of the argument will be analysed and evaluated using the processes of critical thinking. In order to do this thoroughly Damer's (1995, cited by Gibbs & Gambrill, 1999, p206) four criteria of a good argument will be heeded. If any of these are violated, he states, then the argument is flawed. The criteria require that the reasons must be relevant, acceptable and constitute sufficient grounds for the truth of the conclusion. Finally the reasons should provide effective rebuttal to all reasonable challenges to the argument. Before this can be achieved, consideration of what critical thinking is and its' relevance to social work needs to be undertaken. Critical thinking involves the critical appraisal of beliefs, arguments and claims in order to arrive at well-reasoned judgements. Ã¢â¬ (Gibbs and Gambrill, 1996, p. 3). Whilst this definition is not absolute it provides a sound basis from which to commence and points to it's application to social care. Social care staff frequently need to evaluate information to solve problems effectively and come to well-developed decisions. Swartz & Parks (1994, p. 338) argue that assessing the reasonableness of ideas is crucial and failing to do so runs the risk of acting on ideas that are incorrect and may lead to harm. The article tries to convince the reader that the codes are a Ã¢â¬Ëdream come true' because they will give social care staff increased status, raise standards of care and increase shared responsibility between workers and employers. The actual codes are not given, perhaps based on the assumption that readers of Community Care, a specialist magazine for social care staff, are already familiar with them. The reasons, given above, fulfil the relevance criteria in that if accepted they contribute to the truth of the conclusion. Whether they are acceptable will be examined later. The fifth paragraph offers an analogy with the Nurse's Code, though the work of nurses is not strictly analogous to that of social care staff. Relevant similarities exist Ã¢â¬â they both deal with vulnerable people, are working to achieve the best possible outcome for the service user and in both cases a mistake could result in serious consequences. The differences, however, question the value of the analogy as evidence (Brink-Budgen, 2000, p. 53). Nursing is a more structured profession and focuses on the Ã¢â¬Ëmedical model' whereas social work deals with a number of different perspectives and models and thus is harder to define. Furthermore, as is stated in the article, the new social work code applies to a range of social care jobs. Therefore it is dubious as to whether the nurses code is relevant or comparable. Fallacies and assumptions, apparent in the reasoning, detract from the acceptability of the argument. Emotional language is used to divert the reader's attention from the real issues. This is illustrated in the first two sentences of the article; the first sentence evokes feelings of pathos followed by the second, which raises the reader to a sense of elation and optimism on behalf of social care staff. In order for the claim that the code will increase successful recruitment to be true, it is necessary to assume that difficulties in recruiting social care staff are due to a previous lack of standards. However there is no consideration given to alternatives such as salary, nor is there evidence to support this assumption. Brookfield (1987, p. ) states that identifying and challenging assumptions is central to critical thinking and develops our contextual awareness. Omissions in the article contribute to a permeating sense of vagueness and lack of clarity. Little evidence/research is presented for the claims made that could be considered to be of reliable quality or easily testable. Instead words such as Ã¢â¬Ëmany', Ã¢â¬Ëoften' and Ã¢â¬Ëmost' are used to precede a claim duping the reader into accepting the claim as truth. For example how many social workers see the nurses code as Ã¢â¬Ëan enviable badge of professionalism'? On what has the author based the claim that most social workers have this view? Likewise, nowhere in the article is evidence or service user perspectives indicated to support the claim that the code represents Ã¢â¬Ëa major gain' for them. Considering that the service user is central to social care and the current trend is towards increased service user consultation this is a glaring omission (Lloyd, 2002, p. 164). Compounding the tone of vagueness are unexplained terms and concepts, used within the article, which without resort to further information, leads to a difficulty in deciding whether the premises are sound (Browne & Keeley, 2001, pp. 41-58). For example Ã¢â¬â How will the special health hearings work? What sorts of health issues are included? Because this is not determined, it seems alarmist and raises questions of possible discrimination in the workplace. This is particularly damaging in that anti-discriminatory practice is a core value of social work, which should constantly underpin practice. The issue of accountability is also ambiguous and concerning Ã¢â¬â what is meant by the term Ã¢â¬Ëindividually accountable'? Davies (ed. , 2000) states that Ã¢â¬Å"AccountabilityÃ¢â¬ ¦ at firstÃ¢â¬ ¦ a simple concept, is in reality complex when applied to the practice of social work. There are a least four answers to the question: Ã¢â¬Ëto whom is the social worker accountable for her or his actions? Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ . Accountability also holds connotations of blame (Banks, 2002, p. 30) which further demonstrates the importance of clear and unequivocal language (Adams et al. , eds. 2002). Having examined Damer's (1995) first three criteria the Ã¢â¬Ërebuttal criterion' will now be attended to. In order for this to be fulfilled the author should acknowledge any counter arguments and respond to them in a reasonable and straightforward way. Let us come back to the analogy with the nurse's code. On the surface it appears to be a reasonable counter-argument, pointing out that the nurse's code has not fulfilled expectations although it is Ã¢â¬Ëa useful guide'. In my opinion, however, it is a thinly veiled attempt to discredit the nurse's code as inferior to the new social work code Ã¢â¬â partly on the basis that the nurse's code does not include employers (paragraph ten) although the previous paragraph seems to contradict this point. In paragraph eleven the author raises questions which allude to possible negative effects of the code but these are skimmed over and the information that follows seems purposefully vague. This assignment set out to examine the article using critical thinking skills and this has been achieved through the use of questioning and paying attention to problems in the reasoning, arguments and claims made. Unfortunately it has not been possible to raise everything discussed in the article. However, it has considered the strength of the article based on Damer's (1995) four criteria and been found lacking. Therefore, without clarifications and resort to further information, I can only conclude that the argument is flawed and, at this point, reject it as incomplete.
Monday, September 16, 2019
The key areas requiring coverage will be the following: What factors influenced Disney to internationalize and why, please discuss thoroughly What were DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s ownership specific advantages (what did they have to trade/what areas were they expert in?) What were DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s location specific factors (the Where) Ã¢â¬â why did they select France? Ã¢â¬â Discuss and thoroughly evaluate and discuss using factors in the text What were DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s internationalization advantages (the how), how were they going to achieve such a complex move to a European culture and why? Assess the relationship between two parties (Disney & the French Government), who holds the most powerful position, discuss and evaluate What are the multiplierÃ¢â¬â¢s effects for France and Disney? Evaluate, analyze and compare Conclusion No additional research is necessary for this assignment. All details are included in the text given to you. Reproduced by permission of John Wiley & Sons, LTD from Progress in Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol. 3 No 1, 1997 Disneyland Resort Paris: a permanent economic growth poll in the Francilian landscape Anne- Marie dÃ¢â¬â¢Hauteserre Department of Geography, Southern Connecticut State University, 501 Crescent Street, New Haven CT06515 USA Disneyland Resort Paris was located in the Francilian landscape to increase the capital accumulation of the Walt Disney Company. It has settled there permanently, thanks in part to the convention signed by the company with the French government who needed an economic growth pole in the eastern part of the Paris Basin. Disney accepted the partnership and itÃ¢â¬â¢s constraints because it had ambitious real estate development plans. The French government, with itÃ¢â¬â¢s New Town policy, was the only European country that could provide such a large acreage which it used to lever DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s presence. Keywords: capital circuits; new towns; economic growth pole; landscape formation; public/private partnership Introduction The arrival of the Magic Kingdom in the Francilian1 landscape ignited a vituperative press campaign by French intellectuals who stood adamantly opposed to American cultural imperialism. It is the latest (although only) international theme park venture by Disney Company. Why did this highly successful company, selling an American specific cultural product that would not benefit from production cost reduction, decide to internationalize? It certainly would not reduce labor costs as illustrated by the migration of European car factories to the United States, while it would require major construction costs. Was the prospect of a widened European market by theÃ time of the opening of Disneyland Resort Paris in April 1992 the main incentive for foreign foray, and why? Was it established to act as an economic growth pole, complementing the French stateÃ¢â¬â¢s policy of urban development of the Eastern suburbs of Paris? Large theme parks, like megaevents, promise potential economic development of the areas they localize in. This new geographic landscape was produce not just by private capital, to be dismantled at capitalÃ¢â¬â¢s whim (Harvey, 1989), but by the synergic action of several different agents. This paper will demonstrate how the continued economic success of Disneyland Resort Paris is not simply just the result of itÃ¢â¬â¢s capacity to create profits through itÃ¢â¬â¢s consumption in a new locale, however semiotically explained, and/or the result of the judicious choice of the localization of this cultural capital circuit at the apex of European accessibility. Its success is circumscribed by and dependent on the French governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s development strategies and judicial structures. Capital has had to negotiate with government the design of itÃ¢â¬â¢s commodified landscape, the continued organization of which has also been subject to pressure by its potential customers. The convergence of these agentsÃ¢â¬â¢ guarantees that Disneyland Resort Paris will remain embedded in Marne-la-Vallee in spite of all the difficulties it has faced until now such as financial restructuring in March 1994. The paper will first discuss how different approaches to economic globalization explain the Disney CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s move to internationalize and how the choice of the site was based more on traditionally geographic reasons such as accessibility and availability of land. It will then demonstrate how the CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s designs to ensure continued growth in the far future could only be accommodated by France with itÃ¢â¬â¢s New Town development strategy. This allowed the state to impose constraints on this private venture to ensure that it would remain a permanent part of the Francilian landscape whose new design the company had to negotiate. The paper will then show how Disneyland Resort Paris is not the white elephant that the French government was accused of subsidizing but will continue to act as a major economic growth pole. Causes of Disney CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s move to internationalize The circuits of capital approach emphasize the totally interconnected nature of finance, production, commodity trade and consumption. Ã¢â¬ËCapitalism is a process of reproduction of social life through commodity production. The laws of capital circulation are consistentÃ¢â¬â¢ (Harvey, 1989:343). The primary requisite of a capitalist economy is a continuous circulation of capital. Jean-Paul Sartre had noticed already in 1945 that Ã¢â¬Ëover and above greed, a genuine economic principle motivates Americans: Ã¢â¬Å"Money is supposed to circulateÃ¢â¬ (Combat)Ã¢â¬â¢. As capital circulates it is transferred from one investment to another. It follows only one cardinal rule: value be increased. Competition has become increasingly global. Disney Company, like all TNCs, is essentially a capitalist enterprise driven by profit. Ã¢â¬ËThe odd thing about post-modern cultural production is how much sheer profit seeking is determinant in the first instanceÃ¢â¬â¢ (Harvey, 1989:336). The domestication of fantasy in visual consumption is inseparable from centralized structures of economic power. Disneyland Resort Paris is a private instrumental space designed for the efficient circulation of commodities, which is itself a commodity produced for profit. Cultural capital may represent an infinitely more expendable resource for capital accumulation than traditional investment capital, both for private companies and for governments. Cultural capital is considered here as a form of economic capital invested in the production of culture, rather than a symbolic capital, a personÃ¢â¬â¢s or groupÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge. These circuits of capital are not abstract notions; they are anchored in space where they create geographical landscapes. The company and its imagineers have been pushed by investors to create more and more circuits. The Bass brothers controlled nearly 25% of equity and so named Michael Eisner as the new company chairman in 1984, following other hostile takeover attempts, because the company was not exploiting itÃ¢â¬â¢s full potential to create more circuits of capital (Wallace, 1985; Taylor, 1987). The company, in 1984, was already a powerful brand name with annual revenues of $1B. DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s profits had soared to $783M in 1989 and its revenues had reachedÃ $8.5B in 1991 thanks to a very successful theme park in Japan, through enlarging the Orlando area and through other ventures. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s new directors wanted to capture more of the surplus value the name generated by entering the real estate business. They wanted to collect more than just royalties, as in Japan, to control more hotel development (they own only a small portion in Orlando), and to draw in more potential customers. Ã¢â¬ËThey are banking on Eurodisney as the principal engine of DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s growth in the 90Ã¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬â¢(Business Week, 1990). Disneyland Resort Paris was considered a major investment potential by 1984 because of the worldwide shift in capitalism from an emphasis on production to consumption. The organization of consumption has just as important an effect on economic and social structure as the organization of production (Lash, 1993; Zukin, 1991). Shopping, consuming is the most important contemporary social activity on North America (Levine, 1990; Williamson, 1986). The consumption landscape can be viewed as a by-product of the changes in the distribution of income in the constant struggle of labor and capital over economic surplus. Consumption is also emphasized inside the parks. The Magic Kingdoms represents a fantasy landscape constructed around an entirely fictive nexus based on highly selective memory and mediated by mass consumption. In the United States Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.the Disney landscape has become a model for establishing both the economic value of cultural goods and the cultural value of consumer productsÃ¢â¬ (Zukin, 1991: 231) and has legitimized investment in them. In the over crowded market place (even or especially that of theme parks Ã¢â¬â see Figure 2) imagery has become increasingly critical as a way of attracting particular publics and facilitating acts of consumption. The decision to internationalize is a major strategic decision. Disney was looking for economies of scope and co-ordination (Dicken, 1992: 143). Although the process of knowledge accumulation obtained from locating in new markets generates endogenously productivity gains that can sustain long run growth, the company had to Ã¢â¬Ëcompare anticipated streams of monopoly profits with expected costs of product relocationÃ¢â¬â¢ (Grossman and Helpman, 1992:335). The innovation phase of its entertainment product (Ã¢â¬ËMagic KingdomÃ¢â¬â¢)Ã required itÃ¢â¬â¢s location in California, close to the movie and television studios itÃ¢â¬â¢s inception and survival depended on (W.Disney in Schikel, 1968). As the product matured, the company reacted to the actions of major competitors. To prevent further entry by competitors it developed the resort in Florida and licensed the Ã¢â¬ËMagic KingdomÃ¢â¬â¢ to a Japanese company (Lanquar, 1992). The dynamic nature of economic and social processes finally led to the direct penetration of foreign markets, penetration of foreign markets, penetration limited in Europe exclusively for the next ten years to itÃ¢â¬â¢s French site (Convention, 1987.) Disney Company developed a globally integrated competitive strategy to focus on itÃ¢â¬â¢s know-how in resort development which had taken it thirty years to develop and refine and which would differentiate it from itÃ¢â¬â¢s competitors. In North America, Disney World had remained the most frequented tourist site, as of 1995. Las Vegas is disputing this ranking today. Dunning (1980, 1991)2 indicates that, at the micro (firm specific) level, to internationalize, companies need to fulfill three conditions: ownership specific advantages, internationalization of the use of these advantages, and location specific factors, all of which characterize the Disney Company if not always in the traditional manner. DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s ownership specific advantages reside in intangible assets, itÃ¢â¬â¢s perfected knowledge in resort development, itÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to create new imaginative visual consumption products, itÃ¢â¬â¢s sophisticated imagineering skills, inscribed in itÃ¢â¬â¢s brand image. DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s pursuit of an intentional accumulation of knowledge to respond to anticipated market conditions (for example, by engineering new themes for consumption, since the company has vowed to forever renew itÃ¢â¬â¢s parks, cf. Flower, 1991: 186-8, 205-6, 279, 285) requires an allocation of resources and investment of the same magnitude as for creating new technology. Ã¢â¬ËInternationalization of this knowledge will require [Disney] to operate a network of [parks] on a world-wide basisÃ¢â¬â¢ (Grossman & Helpman, 1991:82). The application of these skills is limited to theme park creation although the idea has been replicated in other arenas of consumption: mega-malls, forÃ example, seek to attract and retain customers for the longest time by presenting Disney-like attractions. Steve Wynn salutes DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s imagineering with his pirate shows performed against the backdrop of a Ã¢â¬ËTreasure IslandÃ¢â¬â¢ sidewalk dÃ ©cor in Las Vegas. Copycat theme parks have burgeoned too, like Busch Gardens. This socio-spatial complex of production cannot be geographically separated from its consumers. It has needed to locate (i.e. to move outside of the US to where the consumers are) this new form of consumption as well as to localize itÃ¢â¬â¢s specific features (creating itÃ¢â¬â¢s own landscape within another cultural landscape, both at a geographic site and in the business and consumption world). The very localized consumption space offered by its theme parks limited itÃ¢â¬â¢s possibility for expansion. Disney needed to serve new markets in different locations directly even though the product is virtually identical. Marginal increases in numbers of visitors would have been minimal even if the parks in the United States were enlarged (this was one of the main reasons for DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s original move to Florida). This potential number of tourists from Europe would not increase either much above the 2 million now visiting the theme parks in the United States, considering the slow growth of European population and of itÃ¢â¬â¢s wealth. Time and cost space convergence have not been significant enough at the international level for pleasure travelling and it has not dissolved the psychic distance (language barrier for travelling to the United States, if not inside the Disney theme parks). Geographic reasons for choosing a location in Europe and a Francilian site. The Disney Company has mentioned two major reasons, or more traditional location specific factors (Euro Disney SCA, 1992). It can draw on 350 million customers (almost one and half times the size of the population of the United States) over an area half itÃ¢â¬â¢s size (Figure 1). Such a geographic move was to enable it to take advantage of the growth of short break holidays in Europe, together with the growth in numbers and sophistication of tourists while finding itÃ¢â¬â¢s niche in the increasingÃ tourist market segmentation. Four groups of tourists have been identified in Europe: 52% still travel attractive coastlines in warmer climes, 13% buy tourist packages, 25% prefer rural tourism and the rest practice urban tourism (Straw & Williams, 1990: 241). It founded its strategy on the notion that new consumption practices can take place anywhere and are eminently transportable. The company wanted to insure that it would remain the industry leader while it captured more of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s market share and augmented the size of the firm (Grover, 1991). Their target, for some sectors, is up to a 20% yearly increase (Lanquar, 1992:73). Long holidays occur over the summer months whereas shortest trips (their targeted travel niche) are taken year round. In 1985, more than %19 had taken a second holiday in the European Community, 27% in France. Unfortunately, that kind of travelling could not maintain itÃ¢â¬â¢s early fast growth: it had increased 10% yearly in Great Britain between 1976 and 1985. France was also then the European leader in international conferences (Straw & Williams, 1990: 242). The recession, combined with the staging of several mega-events in Europe in 1992, absorbed much of the disposable income for that year and beyond (Winter Olympic Games in Albertville, France; World Fair in Sevilla, Spain; Summer Olympics in Barcelona, Spain). Disney Company also relied on the fact that its products-division received 50% of its worldwide revenues from Europe. Fifty-five million copies of The Journal Mickey are published yearly in Europe, including now a Russian version, but only 13 million in the United States. At least 250 European societies have signed licensing contracts with the Disney Company (Rencontres, 1992: 89). Walt Disney Animation, one of the largest European studios for the production of cartoons had been implanted in France earlier (Saffarian, 1992). European consumption habits already included Mickey Mouse paraphernalia. Disney CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s organizational apparatus leads, now across the world, to an increasing consumption synergy as its merchandise acts as both commodity and advertisement. In 1990, one third of its revenues were generated from foreign sales (Grover, 1991: 200). Name recognition is crucial even if often taken for granted in the consumer world (Flower, 1991: 21, Grover,Ã 1991: 187). Ã¢â¬ËDisneyÃ¢â¬â¢ has become a shared term in world culture. Disney CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s megadesigns (Ã¢â¬ËDream, diversifyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦and never miss an angleÃ¢â¬â¢, W.Disney, 1988: 7), part of the dynamism and growth of transnationals, boosted competition for the park between European countries where it was considered a potential economic growth pole by itself and because it co-operates with other large multi-nationals. Cultural consumption contributes to capital accumulation by enhancing profits on entrepreneurial investment in production and distribution. European governments were anxious to anchor this new circuit of capital on their soil where it wold spawn more circuits. In the first ten years of DisneylandÃ¢â¬â¢s existence in California, the Disney company took in $273M, the peripherals $555M (Sorkin, 1992: 224). What distressed Walt Disney even more than the loss of surplus value was the disorderly and sullying form of this growth. In Orlando it has led to the construction of 76,800 hotel rooms, 5000 of which are under direct Disney management, 12,000 under licensing agreement (Rencontres, 1992). All the others are the result of spillover effects which include the implantation of 23 attraction parks around Disney World (Figure 2) The two other main contending countries besides France were Spain, for itÃ¢â¬â¢s sunshine (access, however was very constricted) and Great Britain because of the successful entertainment complex of Blackpool. The creation of Disneyland Resort Paris opened new spaces for the service economy where it should have a positive effect on capital accumulation in real estate development. Cultural goods and services gain economic significance through their role in interacting circuits of economic and cultural capital (Zukin, 1991: 260). In the contemporary (European, French) market economy investment in cultural capital would offset cyclical devaluation in other parts of the same circuit or in other circuits. European governments regard tourism as having an important economic role through its impact on foreign earnings, employment creation and regional development, because the activity is labor-intensive and employment can be generated relatively cheaply by those governments. In the United KingdomÃ tourism supports 1.4 million jobs (Urry, 1990). Urban tourism is being used as a spur to regeneration in many de-industrialized(zing) areas in spite of the strong dependence of tourist activities on part-time and seasonal as well as low-skilled, and this low-waged, labor (Straw and Williams, 1990, Urry, 1990). Man governments were desperate to stem unemployment. In the mid 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s, 16 million workers were unemployed in the European Union. The unemployment rate hovered around 10% between 1983 and 1992 with highs of 12% in France and 21.2% in Spain. The rate for young people was 18% across the Union but reached %30 in Spain and Italy(Commission des Communautes Europeenes, 1992). Many of the recruits of Disneyland Resort Paris are young and unskilled (Lanquar, 1992:117). Cultural and environmental problems can also be exaggerated by the introduction of mass tourism (e.g. Disney WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s problem with sewage effluents in the Orlando area, Flower, 1991: 252). Such economic development can occur only if it does not put undue pressure on vulnerable natural resources. European governments are involved in tourism development because of its multiple impacts. Tourism, in turn, has commercialized Ã¢â¬ËcivilizationÃ¢â¬â¢: in France, the transformation of Ã¢â¬Ëthe places of memoryÃ¢â¬â¢ into Ã¢â¬Ëplaces to visitÃ¢â¬â¢ has returned handsome benefits. The French government takes a broad perspective on tourism: it is more socially and culturally informed and less biased toward economic issues (OCDE, 1992, Rencontres, 1992:157). Why did Disney Company choose a rainy site close to Paris? It is one of three major population concentration poles in Western Europe, the other two being London and the Rhine Valley, and it is the most accessible to these other two (see Figure 1). Spain or the London area would have given access to the European Union market but from a peripheral location. Accessibility underpins the pull of centrality. The Paris Basin is at the juncture of northern and southern Europe: it is an unavoidable thoroughfare. Paris is also one of the most attractive cities with 25 million foreign visitors throughout the year. It is fewer than the 60 million visitors of London, but the majority of these are domestic (Straw & Williams, 1990). Those who will come to Disneyland Resort Paris, the company reasoned, will remain in the Eurodisney hotels 2 or 3 nights to visit Paris too. Studies conducted in 1985 determined there was great demand potential for theme parks in Europe (only one in ten people had even been to a theme park) that was largely unfulfilled (Rencontres EPA, 1992). Ã¢â¬ËThe large Paris metropolitan area is missing a theme park that could restore itÃ¢â¬â¢s tradition as a center for recreationÃ¢â¬â¢ (Ousset, 1986). He felt that Disneyland Paris would fulfill that role. There existed only two large recreational complexes in Europe: Blackpool Pleasure Beach in England (7 million visitors a year) and more than one hundred-year-old Tivoli Gardens in Copenhagan (3.8 millions) (Urry, 1990). Its site (in Marne-la-Vallee) illustrates the importance of geographical location (Figure 3) in itÃ¢â¬â¢s traditional materialist interpretation, which is even more critical at the microlevel. The company had definitely opted for the French site in 1985, in spite of itÃ¢â¬â¢s unfavorable weather conditions, following studies conducted since the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s in several European countries on the feasibility of a number of sites (Grover, 1991: 187-8). Disney Company was looking for a site that was easily accessible to a large number of potential customers year round. When the company returned to court French authorities in the early 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s it had also realized that itÃ¢â¬â¢s projects needed a minimum critical mass to allow them to function as resorts. They were thus looking for a site that would guarantee the land area needed not only for itÃ¢â¬â¢s theme parks (a total of three are planned into 2017) but also for the hotels, restaurants, residences, office that would be built because of the demands generated by the parks (Figure 4). At the same time, social practices are structured in time as well as in space as they structure that space. Spain has offered the Walt Disney Company a better deal than France, but it was not able to put together a large enough parcel of land (Grover, 1991: 188). The Paris area was the best equipped to handle such a large real estate project thanks to the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËNew Towns PolicyÃ¢â¬ initiated 30 years ago: large virgin plots of land were ready forÃ rapid urbanization, minimizing the cost of infrastructure provision and of the environmental disruption caused by such construction (Roullier, 1993). Four million cubic meters of land were moved, 68,000 cubic meters of rocks were molded and 85,000 trees planted, while work on sanitation and drainage was equivalent to that required by a town of fifty to sixty thousand inhabitants during the construction of the Disney park (Nouveau Courrie, 1992). This readiness includes not just the transport and other physical infrastructure, but also the judicial and administrative mechanisms for integrated project developments conducted by both the state and private companies. New town development strategy and the constraints of the Ã¢â¬ËconventionÃ¢â¬â¢ New Towns were created by the French Government in 1964 to guarantee a more harmonious economic development of the Ile de France by emphasizing the eastern side until then neglected (Bastie, 1991: 88). Major industries had located on the western and southern side of Paris, while their pollutants blew east. The French governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s planned office center, La Defense, was built on the western fringes of Paris. These new towns were to offer a dynamic urban life within an architecturally stimulating environment and to remedy the earlier uniformity of suburban high rising apartment projects constructed to house the lower French classes, and little else (Roullier, 1993) The government chose suburban locations for the new towns (Figure 5) to counteract the main characteristics of all suburbs: their distance from town renters which turns suburban dwellers in Europe into second-class citizens (Merlin, 1989). More than a million people now live and work in these new towns, 225,300 in Marne-la-Vallee alone in 1993 (Figure 6, EpaMarne/EpaFrance, 1994). Their exact location as well as their layout was to respect the physical characteristics of the area and to take advantage of its environment amenities. Disney Company came on board when the third section (Bussy-St-Georges: 7000 housing units, 600,000 square meters of offices and 90-hectare technological industrial park) was just started (Etablissments Publics, 1991). The parkÃ¢â¬â¢s size made it an ideal addition to the new town.Ã Disneyland Resort Paris was not just an amusement, but a large urban development, supported by major improvements in the transport network finance by the French government. (Boyer, 1994). In the French GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s view, for the French new towns to really develop Ã¢â¬â i.e. grow beyond the need for constant state subsidies and to successfully change into old towns Ã¢â¬â attracting private investment was as important as constructing subsidized housing. The implantation of Disneyland Resort Paris crowned a development strategy conceived many years before (Roullier, 1993). The long-term objective was to make this area on of the main economic pivots of Europe, as revealed by itÃ¢â¬â¢s name Ã¢â¬ËVal dÃ¢â¬â¢EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢. This objective was based on the improvements in transport systems that would restore freedom of choice to town dwellers, provide access to the labor force and offer distribution networks for businesses. Transportation has been a key to new town development from its inception. The existing transport network is capable of draining towards Disneyland Resort Paris all those millions of anticipated visitors (Figure 3). All main communication routes in Europe or within France converge towards this area. Even if the Magic Kingdom were to fail (close itÃ¢â¬â¢s doors), these transport improvements would remain as the basis for attracting other private investors to an area that has always been designated for urban growth. Continuous urbanization from the other three sectors had been planned for this area, for some indefinite time in the future. The park only accelerated the process. There are two main themes to the development of Marne-la-Vallee as a new town. One is an office complex ten kilometers from Paris, with direct links to the capital. The other is the complex of Val dÃ¢â¬â¢Europe centered around Disneyland, one of itÃ¢â¬â¢s featured attractions, with a large number of offices serving as headquarters for Disney in Europe (100,000m2) that should attract other offices functions to occupy another 200.000m2. (EPA, Marne/EPA France, 1994; Boyer, 1994). By attracting large numbers of tourists, Disneyland Resort Paris will act as an investment magnet on other circuits of capital, based on the provision of hotels, tourist and leisure facilities and office buildings, that the French government will channel precisely through itÃ¢â¬â¢s new town of Marne-la-Vallee and as per the 173-page accord signed by two on 24 March 1987 after 27 months of arduous negotiations. The complete document with itÃ¢â¬â¢s appendices totals more than 400 pages (Convention, 1987). Results in real estate values remain way below predictions because Europe has been mired in an economic recession since the opening of the park. Although the French government seems to have given in to Disney CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s demands (Grover, 1991), for example by agreeing to an international rather than a French court to settle disagreements, the detailed contract attributes obligations to both sides. The French government spent 2.7 billion FF to provide first rate transportation links, but it has meant added jobs for the area (4,500 for the rail line, 1,300 for the RER). Disney Company must, in turn, guarantee a minimum number of rides for the Regie Autonome des Transports Parisiens (RATP) on the extended regional metro (RER) Ã¢â¬ËAÃ¢â¬â¢ line, or pay for the difference (Convention, 1987, Article 11). A detailed program of development of the land offered to Disney schedules each step. It was not given all 1,945 hectares to speculate with at will, contrary to some press accounts (Business Week, 1990; Smadja, 1988). Disney Company spent only 500M FF to acquire the land necessary for the itÃ¢â¬â¢s first theme park (covering the costs of the infrastructure provided with the land) but it led to private investments of 10B FF (Lanquarm, 1992:109). Other major projects, such as international soccer stadium and centers of higher learning, are being erected in the area, encouraged in part by the presence of Disneyland in Paris (Boyer, 1994). Disney Company also appreciated dealing with one main negotiating team, the EPA (Etablissement Public dÃ¢â¬â¢Amenagement), whose existence was permitted by the new town judicial structure (Rencontres, 1992: 99-122). This is a public development corporation that fulfills both commercial and financial functions. It is established by government decree and has powers of pre-emptive and compulsory purchase, as well as legal and financial autonomy. It can thus function as developer in the new town, while it alsoÃ represents the government. Communication remains remarkably static-free between this private company and French authorities, thanks to the single government voice and thanks to the detailed blueprint that indicates who does what, when, and how (Convention, 1987). The company also underlines the importance of continuity on the French side, adhered to through the years, since the first negotiations in 1985, by the French government in spite of political changes at the helm (Rencontres, 1992:100). The French state did require that this development occur within guidelines set up in a Ã¢â¬ËProjet dÃ¢â¬â¢Interet GeneralÃ¢â¬â¢ (EPAMarne, 1987, Limery, 1996) that seeks to insure a coherent approach that will, for example, enable the villages in the area to maintain their present specific characteristics. The requirement was not made in a spirit of simulated heritage but to maintain architectural variety while enabling new construction to be fully integrated in the new townÃ¢â¬â¢s landscape. This evolution will transform the living conditions of the residents of the old villages of the area who thought they could maintain a rural lifestyle only thirty minutes away from Paris and who are going to be invaded by millions of tourists. Agriculturists and ecologists have joined forces to fight for the preservation of agricultural areas within the new town to counterbalance this mounting urbanization. (See Roullier, 1993; Bastie, 1991). The departement of Seine-et-Marne has seen an increase of 18,000 hotel rooms between 1985 and 1992. This includes the 5,200 rooms constructed by Disney Company (Rencontres, 1992: 165). It wants to develop the potential attraction of the southern part of the departement, i.e. the region farthest from the park that includes Fontainebleau, from Melua to Chateau-Landon and from Barbizon to Montereau. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural and natural landscapes are rather exceptional since they include a number of famous castles (Fontainebleau and itÃ¢â¬â¢s museum. Vaux-le-Vicomte, Moret-sur-Loing) and beautiful natural forests. It is also an area frequented by locals (9 million per year) and by many foreign visitors (Maison Departementale, 1994). Disneyland Resort Paris is a wonderful opportunity to increase the level of visits by outsiders to the area which has suffered until now from itÃ¢â¬â¢s location in the shadow of Paris (25 million foreigners visit the capital, less than aÃ million come to this area). The convention that Disney Company signed includes the obligation for it to advertise other tourist sites in the area besides itÃ¢â¬â¢s own, as per Article 10 of the 1987 Convention (see, for example, the Michelin Guide to the Magical Kingdom). Tourist operators who do not have exclusive contracts with Disneyland Paris are also solicited to include these other stops in their packages. The departement is also trying to increase partnership agreements with a variety of service providers. Europcar, the official car rental agency of Disneyland Resort Paris, will put inside each vehicle a tourist map of the whole departement, as well as discount coupons for castles and restaurants in the area (Convention, 1987, Conseil General, 1991). Negotiating the design of the Francilian landscape The French government must have recognized that behind the vitriolic cultural debate about Disneyland Resort Paris stood a high level of capitalist investment in performance, in the machinery of reproduction, investment designed to create a Ã¢â¬ËproductÃ¢â¬â¢. The French government did not bow to capitalism which, like technology Ã¢â¬Ëdoes not invite a close examination of itÃ¢â¬â¢s consequences. It asks for trust and obedienceÃ¢â¬ ¦.because itÃ¢â¬â¢s gifts are truly bountifulÃ¢â¬â¢ (Postman, 1993: xiii). Contrary to popular opinion which accused it of caving in to the bullish tactics of Disney and the lure of many jobs, the French government had already resisted approaches by the company in 1976. French negotiators needed proof that this product could be exported. Tokyo Disneyland could not serve as a model in European negotiations and development, because the Disney Company was not a direct participant. It sold the exploitation rights to a Japanese company (Oriental Land Company) who financed, owns and runs the park. It did, however, serve the purpose of proving that the Magic Kingdom could be successfully transplanted onto foreign soil. Ã¢â¬ËWeÃ¢â¬â¢re finally able to convince the French negotiators that we really meant business.Ã¢â¬â¢ (Recontres, 1992:113). Because of the cultural capital are formed in real spaces, they suggest how space in an advanced service economy is really formed. Ã¢â¬ËCapital creates andÃ destroys itÃ¢â¬â¢s own landscapesÃ¢â¬â¢ (Harvey, 1989). Space is structured by circuits of capital as they leave messages embedded in their surroundings. Ã¢â¬ËSince the nineteenth century, shifting from one landscape to another has depended less on individual mobility than on a broad scale varied remaking of landscape itself.Ã¢â¬â¢ (Zukin, 1991: 18). Landscapes sometimes grow by accretion; they do not seem as historically and culturally bound as in the past as they are constantly reinvented by Ã¢â¬ËfootlooseÃ¢â¬â¢ capital. The French government could not have forced Disney Company to choose a location in France. Some incentives to influence it might have over come any benefit government intervention could command. Tax concessions may eliminate any gains or lead to a transitory gains trap. The wages obtained from the supplementary jobs might be very low, leading to minimal tax and spillover gains, while increasing the need for services. The landscape is broader, has deeper roots and relies on more interconnections than government alone can control, especially on the international scene, since government intervention is restricted to itÃ¢â¬â¢s territory. Strategies of cultural consumption may only complement, rather than contradict, strategies of capital accumulation. The competitive edge of the French government to capture the Disney investors was by means of product differentiation, offering a space they enhanced through design and designation. The linkage between cultural capital and real estate development enables new economic structures to be localized and to acquire specific geographic locations: Marne-la-Valle for Disneyland Resort Paris. Disneyland Resort Paris demanded specific efforts to insert this large international project into a suburban new town within which it is to evolve rapidly. These are efforts of co-ordination in planning strategies, in capturing spillovers and in image development (Rencontres, 1992). Disneyland Resort Paris could not, by itself have acted as a growth pole that would economically resuscitate the eastern suburbs of Paris. The circuit of cultural capital it represented fizzled out within two years: Disneyland Resort Paris was ready to close itÃ¢â¬â¢s doors in March 1994 because it was bankrupt due to blunders before and at the time of the opening cultural, financial and economic matters. A capital asset that cannot earn income hasÃ no value; it becomes a liability. It did subject Disney Company to some ridicule by the press (Solomon, 1994). The tension between globalization forces that led to itÃ¢â¬â¢s expansion in Europe and localization forces, the result of local differences in production and marketing techniques has forced Disney Company to change and adapt itÃ¢â¬â¢s much prized know-how: for example, it has had to accept the sale of alcohol in the park. Losses were mounting too dangerously to ignore subtly different cultural practices. It was assumed that traditional status systems and parochial loyalties would wither away in the course of economic growth. Globalization has not done away with culture-specific modes of consumption. One of Disney CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s continued problems is the minimal amount spent by these millions of Europeans within the park: an average, in 1992, of 310FF instead of the expected 333 (Commission du Tourisme, 1993), down to 224FF in 1995 (Revenu, 1996). These spectators (Disney CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s terms for the visitors of itÃ¢â¬â¢s parks) have chosen other non-pecuniary forms of participation in DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s spectacle. The resort was, however, integrated in a long-term project of the French government, dedicated to the balanced economic growth of the Parisian Basin. The short-term effect of Disney CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s capital venture was counteracted by the long term (30 year) Ã¢â¬Ëconvention; signed by both parties. Disney Company could not withdraw, especially if the circuit was no longer profitable. This convergence, in Marne-la-Vallee, of capitalist action and social action created the synergy for Disneyland Resort Paris to be financially restructured in March 1994 so that it could again generate profits. Mutual effects of economics (circuits of capital pushing Disney Company to find new investment opportunities), politics (the French government looking for economic growth poles), and culture (the acceptance of a not-so-foreign popular cultural trait) are restructuring the Francilian landscape. Landscape includes the geographical meaning of Ã¢â¬Ëphysical surroundingsÃ¢â¬â¢ and the ensemble of material and social practices: it is the entire panorama. It connotes a contentious, compromised product of society, but on which powerful institutions have a pre-eminent capacity to impose their view: bothÃ the French government and Disney Company in this case, not just the private company Disney (i.e. capital). In the United States, potential investments that are not targeted on short-term gain are often criticized as Ã¢â¬ËsocialÃ¢â¬â¢ investments, but all investment takes place in a social context. Although it is believed that the role of sovereign states is being eroded in favor of international organizations, agencies and/or associations, private or political, that of France used itÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËstrategicÃ¢â¬â¢ position to direct the development and prosperity of the Parisian Basin. The French government tried to avoid that public value be held captive to private value. It wanted to avoid that improvement explicitly reject the social variety of habitation of explicitly seek security by exclusion. CapitalismÃ¢â¬â¢s most lasting product is landscape (new geographies) which in many places it had rendered impermanent, forever exhibiting a new repertoire. Such shifting landscapes illustrate the structural charges of the global economy (Harvey, 1989; Zukin, 1991; Dicken, 1992). The spatial mediation of cultural consumption affects the redistribution of benefits among social classes and explains the direct interest of the French government in a Disney theme park, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s offer of the Marne-la-Vallee location. Space does make material form for the differentiation of a market economy but places can be selectively configured to promote community goals. The French governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s intervention of land in Marne-la-Vallee from matter to property so that development (localized economic growth) would not lead to obsolescence and dereliction here or in other parts of the Paris basin. It demonstrates that capitalism is not a monolithic force operating alone at the universalizing level to carve up the world according to itÃ¢â¬â¢s sole designs. Spillover effects of partnership Both parties emphasize positive results in spite of the vituperative press campaign which accompanied the arrival of Disneyland in the Francilian landscape (a Ã¢â¬Ëcultural Chernobyl!Ã¢â¬â¢). Such a large attraction was recognized as both a chance and a challenge: Ã¢â¬ËThe chance we grabbed, and together with our American partners we have worked to make the park a success so the 12 million visitors will bring wealth to this whole eastern region. The challenge we are facing is to become a strong pole of attraction culturally and economicallyÃ¢â¬â¢ (Rencontres, 1992: 196) Daniel Robert (of Bison Fute fame) added: Ã¢â¬ËMarne-la-Vallee is blessed with an extra-ordinary opportunity to sell itÃ¢â¬â¢s millions of square meters of office space, itÃ¢â¬â¢s ideal of an urban area, itÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic positionÃ¢â¬â¢ (Rencontres, 1992: 55). The presence of such a large investment has emboldened Marne-la-Vallee to combat the skepticism that smaller potential private investors show when solicited by New Towns. Visitors poured into Eurodisney: 6.8 millions by October 1992, 19.5 millions by February 1994 (Eurodisney SCA, 1992, 1994). ItÃ¢â¬â¢s basic allurement is itÃ¢â¬â¢s Americanness. It has been the best received park ever in Europe and it is the number one paid admission attraction there: Beaubourg Centre received only 8.2 million visitors in 1993, 3.8 million of which were free entries to the library; La Villette saw 5.8 million entries, the Effiel Tower 5.4; the Louvre welcomes 5 million visitors per year (Eurodisney Resort, 1993: 5). These numbers are insufficient, however, for the park to break even, since it needs 11 million per year to do so and reached just that number only itÃ¢â¬â¢s first year of operation. Number of visitors followed a downtrend until 1994: 6,708,551 averaged 1.45 visits in 1993. In 1994, only 5,574,059 (-16.9%) pushed the turnstiles 1.61 times. Visits by residents of the Parisian Basin had dropped by 31.3&. In 1995, however, the park registered a 21.5% increase in attendance. The percentage of foreign visitors had dropped by 15% between 1992 and 1993 down to 56% of the visits but it was back up to 61% in 1994. The majority of the customers (93.3% of the 5,777 hotel rooms and bungalows Ã¢â¬â more than are available in the city of Cannes) are tourists, versus less than a two-thirds average for the Ile de France, but here too the number of foreigners has dropped (72% in 1994, 75% in 1993, vs. 82% in 1992). The occupancy rate of hotels has remained way below OrlandoÃ¢â¬â¢s rate of 79% even if it did not increase from 55% in 1992 and 1993 to 61% in 1994 and 68.5% in 1995. Every hotel night sold by Disneyland Resort Paris engenders the sale of at least one other hotel night in the area. In 1994, Eurodisney hotels stared welcoming guests who were not necessarily attracted by the theme park (EPAMarne, 1994, EPA-France, 1995). Marne-la-Vallee is a creation in progress and it needs to become credible in the eyes of private investors. Although a negative image of Disneyland Resort Paris was diffused by the press during the construction phase, based on itÃ¢â¬â¢s American cultural attributes, itÃ¢â¬â¢s business of selling false reality for pleasure and itÃ¢â¬â¢s bullish negotiating tactics with the French government and later with private companies and labor, the more positive one of leisure and festivities and of successful business know-how has since been emphasized. Disneyland Resort Paris is more than the Magic Kingdom because of the hotels, leisure resources, offices and residences it plans to construct (Figure 4). It has developed an image as a solid capitalist enterprise, the kind Marne-la-Vallee wants to attract. Know-how can be applied to both Disneyland Resort Paris and Marne-la-Vallee, so that MickeyÃ¢â¬â¢s notoriety in Europe can increase that of Marne-la-Vallee, itÃ¢â¬â¢s present location. There does exist the danger that it becomes Ã¢â¬ËDisney ValleeÃ¢â¬â¢. The social construction of the regional identity of Marne-la-Vallee will be dominated by DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural capital and the various other capital circuits it will engender. Two strategies have been suggested to counteract such a danger. At the national level, the state should put in place structures that define the identity of Marne-la-Vallee separate from the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s trademark. At the local level, endogenous and original solution need to be found to allow each and every inhabitant to identify culturally with the specific part of the Brie plateau s/he lives in. Disneyland Resort Paris has fulfilled itÃ¢â¬â¢s role as an economic growth pole both directly and indirectly, distributing spillover effects in the eastern suburbs of the Paris Basin while bringing economic benefits to the country. Within the perimeter of Disneyland Resort Paris, the ratio between public and private investment is 1 to 8, similar to the one found in most new towns. The French government invested 2.7B FF in public infrastructure while private companies and individuals disbursed 23B FF (Eurodisney Resort, 1993: 2). Construction employed 5,100 local workers and 180 companies for a cost of 13B FF 47% of which went to Ile de France companies, 76% in the caseÃ of residential developments. The company also had to construct 1,800 housing units occupied by 3,500 of its employees. In 1992, Disneyland Resort Paris paid 81M FF in local taxes and 250M FF in sales taxes. On opening day it employed 11,500 people, two thirds of whom were French (70% by 1995), one fifth of other European origin. There are now 9,700 employee representing a saving of 7% in operating costs. The downsizing came as part of the financial restructuring of March 1994. They were paid 2B FF in salaries and benefits, a substantial addition to the revenue stream of the new town. They generated with Disneyland, another 25,000 jobs in the area. The fifty tons of laundry produced daily by the resort, for example, led to the construction of two plants in the area. A little over 40% of these employees live in the Seine-et-Marne departement and thus consume within the area. There are another 5,000 seasonal jobs, 10% of which are filled by local residents. The economic activities of Disneyland Resort Paris in 1993 generated 9.2% less revenue than in 1992, although visitor spending outside of Disneyland Resort Paris increased by 3.8%. Another decrease of 6/9% was registered in 1994. In the fiscal year 1991-2, the company spent 2.7B FF, but only 2.2 in 1993, a decrease of 20% in goods and services (insurance, laundry, electricityÃ¢â¬ ¦). Purchases registered a gain of 14% in 1994, and investments for improvements and maintenance, of 22%. Much of the income from these purchases remains in the area. 93% of food products are bought in France, 65% in Ile de France. Statistics were culled from Eurodisney Resort, 1993, EPAMarne, 1994, EPAFrance, 1995, Eurodisney SCA 1992, 1993, 1994. The French government received 4BFF in foreign currency (3.4% of foreign currency earnings through tourism in France in 1993), 812MFF in taxes and 9 to 15,000 jobs, depending on the season. Although totals fluctuate from year to year, they remain a plus for the economy. Disneyland Resort Paris led to a more than 3% increase in the total number of foreign tourists in France, 60.1M in 1993, 61.3M in 1994. The combined activities and purchases of all 61.3 million tourists provide 5.1% of the French GNP and 7.1% of itÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign currency earnings. The park is placed seventh as a major tourist operator in France, with 4.9BFF in revenues, behind Air France, SNCF, Accor, Club Med, Aeroports de Paris and Nouvelles Frontieres (EPAMarne, 1994, EPAFrance, 1995). Other theme parks come way behind: Futuroscope earned only 300MFF, Asterix 194MFF. The financial restructuring of itÃ¢â¬â¢s annual debt, which amounted to $370M in Marhc 1994, allowed the park to announce a profit of $35 million in the second quarter of 1995 and increased attendance helped consolidate profits for the remaining of the fiscal yearÃ¢â¬ ¦. at least prior to debt payments (New York Times, 1995: D7). There was wide-spread optimism that DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s presence in Europe would enhance the attraction sectorÃ¢â¬â¢s image, help improve standards of presentation and raise consumer expectations and especially willingness to pay. It has increased investment in smaller-scale attractions in France Asterix park (25 miles north of Paris) which had required an investment of $208 million receives 1.5 million visitors per year. The comic books it represents three-dimensionally have been translated in 40 languages. It conquered 7% of the potential market in the Paris Basin in three years. Disneyland Resort Paris aims for 17%. Under the influence of Disneyland Resort Paris it has begun a five-year refurbishment program. It has also been forced to define itÃ¢â¬â¢s product more clearly (Saffarian, 1992). Futuroscope, Ã¢â¬Ëan intelligently entertainingÃ¢â¬â¢ park, has revitalized the region that surrounds it. It opened in June 1987 and boasted profits of 15M FF from revenues of 300M FF paid by 2 million visitors in 1994. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s theme is moving images. When innovators must compete in integrated product markets, they have reason to pursue distinctive ideas, and thereby contribute to the global accumulation of knowledge. Ã¢â¬ËDynamic CinemaÃ¢â¬â¢, one of the most sought-after attractions at Futuroscope, thrills, awes and panics spectators through the use of a 60/second flow of images and hydraulically controlled seats with computerized links to the pictures (Tresch, 1994). It has also had repercussions in other European countries. Port Aventura opened in May 1995 near Barcelona. Four hundred million dollars were invested, 20% of which by Annheuaer Busch, over 20 hectares, i.e. 50 acres (Tagliabue, 1995). Conclusion Both sides have benefited from this partnership between a private multinational corporation and public authorities. Disneyland Paris has maintained the momentum of development in Marne-la-Vallee that the French government wanted to stimulate. Ã¢â¬ËThe success of the office centers of Marne-la-Vallee, of the Cite Descartes (and area of higher learning) and the presence of Disneyland Resort Paris demonstrate that betting on Marne-la-Vallee to assure the economic development of the eastern part of Paris Basin was the way to go, even if success was long in comingÃ¢â¬â¢ (Merlin, 1989: 77). New large projects are being constructed and jobs and their multiplier effect, taxes, new transport lines are increasing. In 1995 attendance numbers were on the rebound and hotel revenue and occupancy rates augmented. Even Orlando had rocky beginnings before returning itÃ¢â¬â¢s investment many times over and the two American parks suffered from lulls (Grover, 1991, Flower, 1991). Both the company and the French government had remained optimistic since talks for the next stage of development are right on schedule. Disneyland Resort Paris obtained a site it can grow in, with the necessary communication links to one of the most densely (in numbers and in purchasing power) settled areas in the world while it provides the French government with a major economic growth pole. The contract binding the two parties distributes obligations to limit the ability of private companies to speculate on investments made by public bodies financed by the general public, while it guarantees the timely completion of these investments. Optimism was justified when Disneyland Resort Paris opened as scheduled on 12 April 1992. It is still justified today as attendance numbers and spillover effects are on the increase. (Revenu, 1996: 9). Proving that public/private partnerships can enhance social benefits and capital accumulation. Endnotes 1 Ã¢â¬ËFrancilianÃ¢â¬â¢ refers to Ile de France, also called the Paris Basin 2 A National Public Radio report in June 1996 indicated that Las Vegas had become the number one tourist destination among travelers who booked through travel agents. In a private communication, J. Brett of the Nevada Commission on Tourism mentioned that 30 million visitors were welcomed in the past twelve months in Las Vegas. Although slightly more than the 30 million who visit Disney World, the numbers quoted are of turnstile pushes rather than of head counts. I was not told how the total number of visitors to Las Vegas was arrived at. 3 All forms of knowledge (all products based on knowledge) have peculiar properties as economic commodities. Know-how is a Ã¢â¬Ënon-rivalÃ¢â¬â¢ good: using it does not preclude others from doing it, of, other theme parks. It also Ã¢â¬Ënon-excludableÃ¢â¬â¢: the very use of information in any productive way is bound to reveal it in part (Grossman & Helpman, 1991: 15). Preventing unauthorized use of it depends on property laws and their enforcement. One can understand Disney CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s sensitivity to any copyright infringements. 4 The first theme park in the Western world was built at the end of 1200Ã¢â¬â¢s by Robert II of Artois at Vieil Hesdin. It included a revolving castle, a grotto within which rain or snow could be willed, animated marionettes, collapsing bridges, as well as exotic plants and animals that symbolized paradise. Charles V destroyed the park 300 years later. References Bastie, Jenn (1991), La Seine-et-Marne dans le schema directeur de IÃ¢â¬â¢Ile de France, Cahier du CREPIF, 36 Boyer, Jean-Marie (1994). Marne-La-Vallee, Paris, Ile de France, EPAMarne. Business Week (1990). An American in Paris, March 12: 60-4 Commission du Tourisme (1993), Les Pares de Loisir en France, Paris, Assemblee des Chambres Francaises de Commerce et dÃ¢â¬â¢Industrie. Commission des Communautes Europeenes (1992): LÃ¢â¬â¢Emploi en Europe, Paris. 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