Saturday, August 31, 2019

Job Offer Letter

Mary Janes 3341 av Cham, Montreal, QC H3C1J5 (514)566 7776, ling-chun. [email  protected] ca February 13, 2013 Mr. Joseph Bleau Recruitment Coordinator Reynolds and Reynolds Ltd. 3 Robert Speck Parkway Mississauga, ON L4Z 2G5 Dear Mr. Bleau: I am a senior at XXX Uni majoring in Business with a focus in Management. I plan to graduate in the Spring of 2013, and I am applying for job of account manager with Reynolds and Reynolds, one of the world’s leading automobile dealer support companies. I believe that my academic and practical experience make me well suited for a position with your organization.As shown in the resume, I am studying in Montreal and taking bilingual courses in my university, which can ensure that I am able to speak French and English frequently. Also, as an intern at Pearson Company before, my responsibilities included maintaining customer relationships by assisting with sales and customer service. I have gained skills in setting goals and quotas and making plans to meet them. I am able to establish and build up long-standing relationships with potential customers at the same time as providing service to existing accounts.In addition, I demonstrated an ability to work under pressure and meet deadlines in my internship. I am willing to travel extensively and work long hours to meet or exceed company goals. My resume, which I have enclosed for your review, contains additional details about my professional accomplishments. It would be a pleasure to meet with you at your convenience to discuss my qualifications and the value I can bring to your organization. Thank you for your kind consideration. Sincerely, Mary Janes

Friday, August 30, 2019

“Demon in the Freezer” A Book Report Essay

â€Å"Demon in the Freezer† by popular virus expert Richard Preston is the third book in his ‘trilogy of death.’ After zooming in on the dangers of Ebola virus in his best-selling book â€Å"The Hot Zone,† and bioengineered monkey pox in â€Å"The Cobra Event,† Preston shifts the focus to the lurking threat posed by the deadly smallpox virus in the event that it becomes the new weapon of choice among terrorists dabbling in chemical warfare.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The book is premised on an alarming but very real possibility – the vulnerability of America and the rest of the world to biological weapons at the hands of terrorists.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   It all begins on the events of September 27, 2001, a Thursday, nearly three weeks after the terror attacks on the Twin Towers of the New York World Trade Center and the Pentagon. Photo retoucher Robert Stevens begins to feel unwell and suffers from flu-like symptoms after he takes his family hiking in North Carolina. He starts to vomit profusely and soon develops a high fever, convulsions, and slips into a coma before succumbing to a fatal breathing arrest. Medical experts diagnose the cause of death as inhalation anthrax, alerting Army officials into action. More poisoned letters are discovered and the victims are rushed into bivouac units, forcing authorities to confront the worst – could the anthrax, non-communicable and treatable with early diagnosis, be laced with something far more deadly – the fatal smallpox virus?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   After narrating the anthrax attacks on Sen. Tom Deschle’s office in October 2001, Preston makes a temporal jump (one of several in fact) to cover a smallpox outbreak in Germany back in 1970, courtesy of the man Peter Los, who in his youth has gone traipsing halfway around the world in Afghanistan, India and Pakistan in pursuit of the hippie ideals of the ‘60s. Preston then proceeds to describe the prehistoric origins of smallpox as far as the early river valley civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Then he propels back to the ‘70s as he retells the smallpox eradication campaign led by medical doctor Donald Ainslie (DA) Henderson, then director of the World Health Organization’s Smallpox Eradication Unit from its inception (1966) to 1977, just before the last known reported case occurred.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Henderson is passionate about getting rid of the virus: â€Å"What we need to do is create a general moral climate where smallpox is considered too morally reprehensible to be used as a weapon. That would make the possession of smallpox in a laboratory, anywhere, effectively a crime against humanity. The likelihood that it would be used as a weapon is diminished by a global commitment to destroy it. How much it is diminished I don’t know. But it adds a level of safety (Preston, 2002, p. 54).â€Å"   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   A Soviet epidemiologist also deserves credit for jump-starting the modern effort to eradicate smallpox – Viktor Zhdanov – who called for its global eradication at the 1958 World Health Assembly annual meeting. This was subsequently endorsed by President Lyndon Johnson in 1965 in a political move to improve American-Soviet relations, and D.A. Henderson found himself heading the World Health Organization’s new Smallpox Eradication Unit. And the rest of the eradication campaign became one of the greatest feats in public health history.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Preston now turns to an examination of the Soviet biological weapons program in 1989, after Soviet biologist Vladimir Pasechnik defected to Britain and confirmed that the USSR had biological missiles targeted at the United States. This infuriated then British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and US President George Bush, who confronted Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. In response, Gorbachev allowed a small, secret team of weapons inspectors to tour the Soviet’s bio-warfare facilities for their Biopreparat program. These American and British inspectors were alarmed by what they discovered: Russian scientists were testing and experimenting with smallpox at their bioweapons facility at the Vector virology complex in Siberia, in violation of the WHO rules. This was denied by Soviet authorities.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   For top UDAMRIID scientist Peter Jahrling, the demon in the freezer has been set loose, with illegal stocks of the smallpox virus in possession of rogue states like Iraq and North Korea almost a certainty. The thought of biologists in secret labs creating new strains of the virus into a ‘superpox’ variant resistant to all vaccines is enough to sent chills down virologists’ spines. Jahrling is leading a team of scientists in controversial experiments with live smallpox to develop vaccines and help counter what the bioterrorists might be cooking up.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The author views the subject of bioterrorism as a very real, urgent and alarming threat to national security, and the fate of humanity on the whole, given today’s mobile world where a smallpox outbreak could spread as fast as wildfire across countries all over the globe.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Following the events after 9/11 and the anthrax terror, Preston highlights the new world order: the urgency to safeguard civilization from these new menaces. Smallpox is recognized as the new supreme bioterror menace, given the disease’s potential to cause human agony, its capability for fast and easy transmission, and ultimately its lethal character. Anthrax pales in comparison as direct contact is unnecessary for smallpox to spread – all it takes is for the virus to travel through a ventilation system. Immunity from the disease through vaccines introduced decades ago effectively vanishes, and if released in today’s very mobile world, it would easily overwhelm mankind in dreadful waves. Preston succinctly captures the menace of smallpox, without resorting to hyperbole: â€Å"Smallpox is explosively contagious, and it travels through the air. Virus particles in the mouth become airborne when the host talks. If you inhale a single particle of smallpox, you can come down with the disease†¦ Then the illness hits with a spike of fever, a backache, and vomiting, and a bit later tiny red spots appear all over the body. The spots turn into blisters, called pustules, and the pustules enlarge, filling with pressurized opalescent pus. The eruption of pustules is sometimes called the splitting of the dermis. The skin doesn’t break, but splits horizontally, tearing away from its underlayers. The pustules become hard, bloated sacs the size of peas, encasing the body with pus, and the skin resembles a cobbled stone street. †¦The pain of the splitting is extraordinary. People lose the ability to speak, and their eyes can squeeze shut with pustules, but they remain alert. Death comes with a breathing arrest or a heart attack or shock or an immune-system storm, though exactly how smallpox kills a person is not known (Preston, 2002, p. 44).†   Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The sociological consequences on account of the issue of bioterrorism are manifold and far-reaching. There is of course the issue of power relations among nations, particularly in the case of the arms race between the United States and the USSR during the Cold War which brought to the fore the threat of nuclear annihilation and bio-chemical warfare. Though the Soviet bloc has crumbled, other rogue states, e.g. North Korea, Cuba and Iran, are more than ready to threaten and challenge the United States for military supremacy, and might even be developing new weapons of mass destruction no longer limited to nuclear warheads but utilizing as well deadly pathogens and viral strains.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Preston spends much time in the book discussing current efforts of the American scientific community to research smallpox in the hope of better combating bioterrorism. It is important to note, as Preston does, that the people leading the fight to destroy smallpox, though well-trained, was still mostly a ragtag group of scientists and medical doctors with the firm conviction that smallpox could indeed, and should be annihilated from the face of the planet.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Perhaps his discussion of the current research on smallpox would prove more relevant as he provides a detailed description and analysis of the conflicts and controversies surrounding the project – from securing approval and the go-ahead signal from top government officials to the personal conflicts and issues the personalities involved in the research have had to face. The primary concern centers on the perceived lax security at the two worldwide biomedical installations, one in Atlanta and the other at Siberia, and their conviction on the very real threat of bioterrorism which could strike anytime and claim so many lives, given the state of unpreparedness to counter such an attack.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Preston successfully connects the past (the impetus for eradication of the disease) to the future (current concerns on how to counter the virus). As situated within the new-world context of post 9/11, there is a pressing need for vaccine stockpiling, long advocated by top government virologist Peter Jahrling who had initially feared the lacing of the mailed anthrax spores with smallpox. He comes into conflict with D. A. Henderson, the current head of the Office of Public Health Preparedness, as he argues for the development of an antiviral agent for those who cannot receive the smallpox vaccine. Henderson thinks that Jahrling’s experimentation with smallpox in laboratory monkeys is a largely futile step in the wrong direction. The dean of John Hopkins School of Public Health Al Sommer has joined the fray, believing that Jahrling’s work provides an impetus for other countries to conduct their on experiments on smallpox, thereby â€Å"We could start an arms race over smallpox†¦ (Sommers as quoted by Preston, 2002).†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   More disturbing is the revelation of the creation of a genetically engineered mousepox virus to which mousepox-resistant rodents are highly susceptible, intensifying the fear that unscrupulous scientists might have already created a ‘smallpox supervirus’ immune to current vaccines. Preston (2002) leaves us with this dire warning: â€Å"The main thing that stands between the human species and the creation of a supervirus is a sense of responsibility among individual biologists†¦The international community of physicists came of age in a burst of light over the sand of Trinity in New Mexico. The biologists have not yet experienced their Trinity.†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The book’s main strength is that is a well-researched piece, and Richard Preston has proven himself a skillful writer with his vivid narration and matter-of-fact style allowing him to dispense with hyperbole.   The book succeeds in frightening its readers as it covers many interesting episodes. Although some may find the message of â€Å"Demon in the Freezer† grim and uncomfortable it nonetheless awakens readers to the true significance of chillingly real concepts, i.e. â€Å"weapons of mass destruction† and â€Å"bioterrorism.†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   On the weak side, the temporal jumps in the narration give one the feeling of a disjointed read, as the two stories on anthrax and smallpox do not quite flow as smoothly and coherently as one might wish – the author fails to weave the story in such a way that there is an effectively riveting and seamless momentum – though each part is fascinating. At some point, there is also too much details to grasp and absorb, and to that extent the reader have to grapple with information overload, halting the usually rapid fire story-telling.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The main bias of the author is that he is of course writing from the American perspective, as the USA proves to be the eminent target of terror attacks. Thus, â€Å"Demon in the Freezer† appears to be an attempt to inform and warn Americans of the dangers they are currently facing from the threat of bioterrorism, and to some extent to influence authorities and make them realize the horrors – a global viral epidemic which could wipe out the world’s population – which might arise from inaction on the part of government and the scientific community:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   â€Å"A vaccine-resistant smallpox would be everyone’s worst nightmare come true†¦ We could be left trying to fight a genetically engineered virus with a vaccine that had been invented in 1796 (Preston, 2002).†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   General Russell had this to add: â€Å"If smallpox really got going, people should be most concerned about a lack of effective leadership on the part of their government (quoted by Preston, 2002, p. 60).â€Å"   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   On a happy note, â€Å"Demon in the Freezer† provided the timely opportunity for me to get acquainted with the issue of bioterrorism and its related concepts – biological warfare, weapons of mass destruction, etc., which are obviously pressing concerns for humanity burdened with the threat of nuclear destruction and annihilation in a not-so-distant future. However, this remains to be the only experience I have so far with the issue of bioterrorism and specifically smallpox and anthrax, for that matter.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In terms of the need for further research, I think it should focus more on determining and mapping out the states which really have illegal strains of smallpox virus in their possession, in order to effectively prepare for any possible worse-case scenarios in the advent of a smallpox terror attack. Aside from smallpox, it might prove helpful in the long-run if scientists also map out other possible biological agents which might pose future threats to human security, and to explore the possibility of developing vaccines and other counter-measures. All of these proposed researches need to be conducted in the most stringent, up-to-standard manner possible, with adequate empirical grounding and in the most morally and ethically acceptable ways.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   I think in many ways (though it might be indirect), the reviewed work does relate to Sociology, with the latter in turn covering a wide array of fields involving human interaction and dynamics in the context of groups and societies. Political institutions and the ensuing dynamics and power relations governing these are discussed by Preston in the book, together with the issue of ethics in research, i.e. the controversy surrounding experiments with smallpox and other viral agents.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Perhaps it would prove useful if material from the book would be incorporated into class lectures, particularly the ethical aspects of research and experimentation with life –threatening organisms, the actual existence and lingering threat of biological warfare and terrorism, and how it is being met by existing social institutions.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Overall, I did found â€Å"Demon in the Freezer† an interesting read, though at times I had to really struggle with understanding all the concepts and trains of thought Preston had introduced in his narratives. It was informative at the same time, though at some point you would really realize how frighteningly real is the scenario the author is trying to relay to his audience. Reference: Preston, Richard (2002). â€Å"Demon in the Freezer.† New York: Random House.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

HEALTH LAW AND ETHICS Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 3

HEALTH LAW AND ETHICS - Essay Example h traditional organization in the system leaves a question mark to many people since a lot has changed as far as labor systems, technology and introduction of new scientific inventions. Most Americans are well alert of the many hardship with the current national health care system compared to a decade ago. Lack of access to inexpensive health insurance and the rising of health care is of prodigious concern to many American citizens (Kronenfeld 70). Unlike before, any working families fear getting sick or injured since they cannot afford basic health care or health insurance (Kronenfeld 59). Many individuals get turned away from insurance firms because of pre - existing medical conditions or illnesses. Others lose their health insurance after they change their jobs or get laid off from work. The cost of health care and health insurance is rising at a rate faster than inflation and wages. According to a study by Kaiser Family Foundation, carried out from 2000 to 2006, wages increased 3.8%, the general inflation rate increased 3.5%, while health care premiums increased 86% (Kronenfeld 46). Most of the uninsured comprise of working Americans who cannot manage to afford the health insurance cost. It is evident that these health hardships faced today did not exist in the earlier

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

The Hitler Youth in WWI and WWII Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

The Hitler Youth in WWI and WWII - Essay Example The designer of the organization was Kurt Gruber, a law undergraduate and follower of Hitler from Palauan, Saxony. He merged collectively quite a few of the underground youth units to shape a developing national organization. It was named as the Greater German Youth Movement or the GDJB. After a short influence fight with the competitor group, the Gruber succeeded and his Greater German Youth Movement developed into the Nazi Party's authorized youth organization. In 1926, the organization was renamed as Hitler Jugend, Bund deutscher Arbeiterjugend which meant Hitler Youth, League of German Worker Youth, and for the first time in the history, the organization formally turned into an important branch of the Sturmabteilung. In 1930's, the Hitler Jugend had enrolled more than 25,000 boys, who were the age of fourteen and onwards. It also arranged a secondary subdivision for small children which were named as the Deutsches Jungvolk, for the boys of age 10 to 14. However, girls from 10 to 18 were also specified with their own similar organization, the Bund Deutscher Mdel (BDM), the League of German Girls. In 1932, the Hitler Youth was prohibited by the Chancellor Heinrich Bruning in an endeavor to end the extensive political hostility. Although by June 1932, the ban was removed by his heir, Franz von Papen as the means of reassuring Hitler whose political leading light was rising swiftly. An additional noteworthy growth force began in 1933, when Baldur von Schirach converted into the initial Reich Youth Leader, dispensing a lot of time and greater amount of wealth into the development of the organization. (Michael H. Kater, 2004). The Hitler Jugend's were sighted as the upcoming "Aryan supermen" who were trained in anti-Semitism. Their major aim was to inspire the enthusiasm that would allow the Hitler Jugend associates as the armed forces, to battle devotedly for the Third Reich. The Hitler Jugend or HJ set additional importance on physical and military preparation than on scholastic education. After the boys scout progress was prohibited by the German restricted states, the HJ corrected a lot of its activities, though altered in content and purpose. Such as, several HJ activities personally looked like military training, with artillery training, battering classes and fundamental policy. Some brutality by the grown-up boys to the younger ones was endured and they were even encouraged, as it was considered that this would prepare the weak and make others strong. However, the Hitler Jugend was prearranged into groups under mature leaders. From the start of 1936, membership of the Hitler Jugend became obligatory for all youthful German men. The Hitler Jugend was also observed as a significant stone moving forward to future membership of the privileged Schutzstaffel. Members of the HJ were mostly proud to be granted with the solitary Sig Rune which means the victory symbol. The Schutzstaffel or SS used two Sig Runes as their mark and this sign provided to characteristically connect the two units. The HJ, moreover, maintained numerous groups intended to expand upcoming officers for the Wehrmacht. The unit presented professional pre-training for every one of the particular armaments for which the HJ member was eventually designed. The Marine Hitler Youth, for instance, was the biggest group

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Liberal Education Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Liberal Education - Essay Example The arguments developed by Graff and Edmundson on liberal education are found to relate in certain ways despite the fact that some difference, based on cultural ideas and practices, have been developed from the fact that various communities and nations have diversified norms and cultural practices that have to be followed by individuals of that community in a strict way. One of the ways in which Graff supports the arguments of Edmundson is through the idea of students choosing their professors by stating the reasons why the students had to choose professors. They need to choose their professors is based on the high cost of education that they are forced to pay for their education. This could be explained by their choice of lecturers. According to Graff, lecturers have different ways of teaching and thus students wish to gain the best possible by considering their most preferred lecturers who could enable them to gain the highest grades possible. The idea of Edmund is based on maximiz ing the resources available based on their payments, an idea supported by Graff in which the choice of lecturers happens to be one of these attempts to gain high points. This way, Graff’s ideology about students seems to support that of Edmundson of students trying to maximize their educational benefits given the high price they pay for the education (Edmundson). In his article, Graff talks about two professors who impart the same subject with different understandings, which can confuse students unintentionally.

Monday, August 26, 2019

Management Ethics inPepsiCo Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Management Ethics inPepsiCo - Essay Example The researcher states that in the modern world there has been a paradigm shift in the values of corporate codes of ethics. Ethical values are not only associated with the work culture of an organization, it also implies on external factors such as stakeholders and society. Professional code of ethics, on the other hand, is also an essential component that is required to be implemented in industries. Professional code of ethics is different from the corporate code of ethics as it has no influence on distinguished wrongdoing in organizations. Since business organizations have to pass through different stages in terms of control systems, management systems, and formal structures. There are some significant developments that are required to be emphasized for its smooth running. Implementation of corporate codes of business ethics plays very important role in the management sector because it not only increases the values and workability in the organization, it also helps to gain the inter est of the external stakeholders of the organizations. This paper focuses on the ethical cultures that are implemented by the PepsiCo along with the continuous support of the management that has helped to maintain the ethical values in the organization. There are several theories of ethics that can be implemented in the work culture of the organizations. First of all, Consequentialism states that the majority of action depends on the moral cost that the action brings in the organizations. According to the organizational policies, each and every employee is expected to practice good and moral behavior and action in the workplace. The ratio between right and wrong determines the moral and ethical values of organizations. According to the theory of morality, every action must be accountable to someone in an organization. For any wrong action or wrong behavior, the person involved must take responsibility. Morality also suggests that every person in the world should have the potential a nd motive to perform only good practices and take up the responsibility for their wrong actions. This kind of behavior in people can help in social engagement and reduce the tendency of conflicts. Organizations strongly implement such policies in their work culture in order to increase productivity.

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Essay on strategy Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

On strategy - Essay Example es have been developed and researches have been conducted to explore the socioeconomic phenomena on the concrete foundations of in-depth observation and existing realities. The global corporate culture has been adopting and following the Five Factors Model presented by famous theorist and strategic analyst Michael E. Porter in 1980. The theorist submits to state that since the contemporary era experiences the state of perfect competition in the wake of tremendous technological advancement, five-factor model is vehemently supportive in developing their strategic schemes and revising them according to the fast changing market situation. â€Å"The strategic business manager seeking to develop an edge over rival firms can use this model to better understand the industry context in which the firm operates.† ( Porter has described the following five factors as the part of his strategic model: Porter views these five factors to be regulating the future of a product as well as the organisation producing the product. Porter declares competitive rivalry between the firms as the most dynamic factor, which explains that the easier the entry in a business or industry, the higher the level of competition in that business area. Since such products are similar to one another in respect of characteristics, formulae and even outlook, the probabilities of their availability are also almost one and the same. Consequently, it is also flexible for the customers and consumers to switch from one product to its rival brand. For example, KFC is offering almost the same fast food items as being produced by McDonalds; the same is the case with Coca-Cola, RC Cola and Pepsi, where only few people are brand conscious and take these drinks as the substitute of one another. Thus, consumers take advantage of such a state of affairs, and the companies have to devise innovative plans and strategies i n order to combat with the situation of perfect competition. Porter also views

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Researched Drama Paper (Hamlet) Research Proposal

Researched Drama Paper (Hamlet) - Research Proposal Example The Shakespeares were a prosperous and locally prominent family. His father, John Shakespeare, was a successful businessman. A great deal is known of Stratford which enables us to understand something of Shakespeare’s boyhood there. The town supported a grammar school which was free to the sons of Burgesses of whom Shakespeare was one. He also went to Grammar school. It is not known what Shakespeare did between the time he left school and his departure for London. Some stories about him that he got into trouble for poaching deer – are possible, but unproved. He married Ann Hathaway, daughter of a yeoman farmer. Their first child was Susan and later, twins, Hamnet and Judith. Very soon after the latter’s birth, Shakespeare departed for London without his family. Shakespeare entered the theater as an actor and was to be an actor-manager for the rest of his life. He made money also as a playwright. Shakespeare died in Stratford in 1616 at the unbelievably early age of 52. Shakespeare wrote the following plays in a period of eight and nine years. Julius Ceasar; Hamelt; All’s Well that Ends Well; Troilus and Cressida; Measure for Measure; Othello; King Lear; Macbeth; Antony and Cleopatra; Timon of Athens; Corionalus. Hamlet has been adjudged the best of men and the worst of men. Mark van Doren in his introduction to the play states that something in his personality renders him superior to decision and incapable of acting. His antic disposition has been analyzed as both a sign of abnormality as well as a device for seeming to be mad. One judgment is as good as another. Very little can be said that will be untrue of this brilliant and abounding young man. Opinions have differed as to which other character can best bring out Hamlet’s character to the fore. Many writers would probably choose Horatio, his close friend and ally who supports Hamlet throughout the story, who echoes his way of thinking and is all praises for him. For

Susan Glaspells conflict and identity Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Susan Glaspells conflict and identity - Essay Example The focus of all three writings is the exploration of feminine identity. Minnie Wright, the absent protagonist of â€Å"Trifles,† Jing-mei, the ‘disobedient’ daughter in â€Å"Two Kinds,† and Elisa Allen, the heroine of â€Å"Chrysanthemums,† are all women in stifling circumstances, who experience conflict. They are women who share a certain common yearning for assertion and identity and attempt to break out of the constraints of their circumstances. Minnie Wright, Jing-mei and Elisa Allen find themselves trapped in conflict and assert their identities in their own ways. Minnie Wright is trapped in an evidently unhappy marriage, and a cheerless home. John Wright is a kill-joy and a miser. Mrs. Hale asserts, â€Å"But he was a hard man† (Glaspell, 22). He is a silent, critical man whose very acquaintance is abrasive. Minnie’s life as Wright’s wife can only be a hopeless situation. Above all, Wright is a cruel man, with a sadistic streak, who deliberately stamps out his wife’s happiness in song and music by killing her pet canary. Minnie’s isolation from the community, the stifling loneliness of her life as Wright’s wife and the loss of her liveliness and love of music move her into deep desolation. . Wright’s killing of the lively, singing canary symbolizes his killing of Minnie’s singing. This brutal act finally pushes Minnie into strangling her husband as he sleeps. Minnie asserts herself by rising against the tyranny of a husband who abuses her as a woman and an individual. Tragically, this assertion of identity comes about only by Minnie being pushed over the border of sanity. This is seen in her laughter, her compulsive â€Å"kind of pleating of her apron† (Glaspell, 6), her concern for her preserves and her request for an apron in jail. She does not seem to realize the gravity of her situation. Although the concealment of her motive by Mrs. Hale and Mrs. Peters may save her from a trial and a verdict of guilt, her ability to live a normal life remains in doubt. Minnie becomes â€Å"done up† (Glaspell, 6). She resolves the conflict in her life but pays the price of assertion by losing her sanity and her chance of enduring happiness. Jing-mei is caught in her mother’s vicarious search for wealth and fame, and her attempt to use her daughter as a vehicle to fulfill her own dreams. Jing-mei â€Å"hated the tests, the raised hopes and failed expectations† (Tan, para. 4). Each of her mother’s experiments in making her a child prodigy ends in failure. What follows is a conflict between the ‘disobedient’ daughter who pleads, â€Å"Why don’t you like me the way I am?† (Tan, Para. 5), and the mother’s attempt to fashion her into the ‘obedient’ daughter whose achievements she can take pride in. Jing-mei rebels against circumstances in her own way. She decides to defy her moth er, and confesses: â€Å"I failed her many times, each time asserting my will, my right to fall short of expectations† (Tan, 9). She resolutely refuses to let her mother force her to meet her expectations: from failing to get straight A’s to being a college drop-out. Jing-mei remains firm in her resolution, â€Å"I won’t be what I’m not† (Tan, 4). Gradually, although her mother holds fast to her belief that her daughter has failed to become a prodigy only because of her lack of will, she accepts Jing-mei

Friday, August 23, 2019

Physician Responsibilities and A Breach of Contract Research Paper

Physician Responsibilities and A Breach of Contract - Research Paper Example The physician should also offer the patient with resources to help find another physician. Pozgar (2011) argues the physician should, with the written consent of the patient, transfer patient records to the new physician. The administrator of the hospital should give details on the legal boundaries of the physician-patient relationship. The patient should, for instance, be made aware that the contract between them and the physician is a fiduciary one, not financial. Similarly, the administrator should ensure that the physician explains the difference between patient abandonment and legal contract termination to the patient. In most cases, strict liability applies to product manufacturers whose products cause harm to patients but not to hospitals and physicians who use these products on patients. However, in some cases a physician may be liable to legal action if they use drugs, radiations, medical devices, and conduct blood transfusions using faulty products (Miller, 2008). 3a. Why it is easier for a patient to prove breach of contract as opposed to negligence, when a physician covering for the patient’s regular physician gives the patient medication that causes severe reaction In case a patient suffers damage at the hands of a physician who is covering for the patient’s regular physician, it is hard to press for negligence charges since it cannot be proven that the physician failed to provide the necessary care due to recklessness or heedlessness. According to Miller (2008) a patient who suffers damage because of malpractice on the part of the covering physician can file a case for breach of contract. This is particularly the case when the regular physician fails to give enough reason for failing to attend to the patient. The contract between a patient and a physician may be breached if the physician promises to use a specific procedure but

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Utilitarianism and Kantianism Essay Example for Free

Utilitarianism and Kantianism Essay In the history of ethics, two major viewpoints emerge: the consequentialist and the nonconsequentialist. The consequentialist view is based on or concerned with the consequences of one’s actions, while nonconsequentialist views are not. One major consequentialist ethical theory is utilitarianism. This theory, whose principle architects were Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) and John Stuart Mill (1806-1873), derives its name from utility, which means usefulness. Utilitarianism is commonly found in two forms: act utilitarianism and rule utilitarianism. Act utilitarianism essentially states that everyone should perform that act which will bring about the greatest good for everyone affected by the act. Fundamentally, this theory requires that each individual assess the situation and determine which act would bring about the greatest amount of good consequences for the maximum number of persons involved. While act utilitarianism sounds nearly ideal, there are several criticisms to this theory. For one, it very difficult to ascertain what consequences are good for others, given that all individuals hold different sets of morals, values, and beliefs. Furthermore, there is a certain impracticality in having to begin anew because not all acts and situations are entirely different. It would also be difficult to educate others given there is no distinct set of rules or guidelines. And finally, one must consider the rights of those â€Å"few† whom do not benefit from that action which will bring about the greatest good. To provide answers to many of the above mentioned criticisms, rule utilitarianism was established. In this form, utilitarians believe that everyone should establish and follow those rules that bring about the greatest good for all concerned. In other words rule utilitarians, from experience and careful reasoning, try and establish a series of rules that when followed, will yield the greatest good for humanity (i. e. â€Å"never kill except in self defense†). Associated with rule utilitarianism are some of the same criticisms encountered with act utilitarianism. Again, it becomes difficult to determine consequences of others. Furthermore, non-rule moralists argue strongly that there is no rule in which one could not find at least one exception. In contrast, one major nonconsequentialist theory is Kantianism. This theory, often called â€Å"Duty Ethics,† was formulated by Immanuel Kant (1724-1804). Kant believed that nothing was good in itself, except the attribute good will, which acts in accordance with rules regardless of consequences. Another human attribute Kant proposed was equally of importance, was one’s ability to reason. He therefore believed it was possible to establish a valid set of absolute moral rules on the basis of reason alone without reference to God. Kant’s two requirements for an absolute moral truth include both logical consistency (cannot be self-contradictory as a statement) and universalizability (stated so as to apply to everything without exception). At the center of Kant’s moral philosophy is the categorical imperative from which all our moral duties originate. Such principles of morality are described as an imperative because they command a certain course of action. In other words, it is a categorical imperative because it commands, independently, particular ends and desires of the moral agent. According to Kant, these imperatives must be obeyed in their entirety, by all, and in all circumstances. For example, someone who is only inclined to be generous, rather than generous out of duty, is not fully moral. Like many other moral theories, there are several criticisms of Kantianism. In some circumstances duties, which Kant describes as universal, conflict. For example, should one break a promise (which is immoral by Kant’s standards) to keep another from being harmed? Sometimes it is impossible to ignore the outcomes of our actions. Kant’s approach also allows for no exceptions which can result in negative consequences. Another criticism to Kantianism is the question of whether or not a qualified rule is any less universalizable then on that is unqualified. In other words, Kant never distinguished between making a rule and qualifying it. And lastly, what happens when one’s inclinations and duties are the same? Does that then make them an immoral being in the truest sense of the word? Most would argue that it is better for someone to do something because they want to rather, than because it is their duty.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Perceptions And Attitudes Towards Solar Energy Environmental Sciences Essay

Perceptions And Attitudes Towards Solar Energy Environmental Sciences Essay The scope of this research is on the energy consumption patterns in India and what proportions of the energy needs are met. We will consider the size of the market for the solar power generation as most parts of India focus on the conventional energy rather than the renewable energy. A brief about the power sectors in India is also discussed; the data for this research is collected by interpreting the secondary data and by conducting interviews as in the primary data. A literature review on environmental marketing is made by taking up the existing technology this will help us in making a market plan for the solar power sector that is viable. Power sector in India-A Brief: The power industry is growing rapidly in India as it consumes 3.4% of the global energy. There is an increase in the annual demand by 3.6% over the last 30years. The surging demand is from the industrial and domestic sectors. Domestic sector à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ 25.87% (2006-07) Industrial sector à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ 35.5% (2006-07) The private and the global firms made their entry ever since they were allowed to participate in the power sector, 1991. But the State Electricity Board (SEBs) is the main source for generation and supply of electricity. Coal remains the dominant source of electricity, though there are many sources of power in India like Gas, Hydroelectric, Wind, and Solar. The installed capacity for power generation in India is 1,49,391.91 MW, and less than 60% of households consume electricity, the Industries followed by Agriculture are the two main sectors that consume power which is why the per capita consumption is very low in India. (India Reports,2009) Solar Energy scope and utilization: Solar energy in the recent times has been proved to be one of the most efficient ways to generate electricity. Usage of Solar-powered equipment in large scale can be beneficial as the carbon dioxide emission would be reduced to a great extent thus leading to a Green environment. The Solar-powered equipment could be used in hotels, hospitals, household purposes and government buildings as these are easily mountable on top of the buildings and requires less space. (Hughes,2009). Source: Central Electricity Authority, Ministry of Power, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy and Frost Sullivan estimates As India receives 3000 hours of sunshine every year which is equivalent to over 5000 trillion kWh and has many solar resources. The daily average solar energy is 4-7 kWh per sq m in different parts of India depending on the location (kotwal,A,2008). India is useful for exploiting the solar power for generating electricity with the technology available as there are about 300 clear sunny days in most parts of the country and the three important ways in harnessing the solar power is with the use of: Photovoltaic Cells- which convert the sunlight into electricity when the light rays are incident on the cells. Active solar heating systems- A collector is kept on the roof which absorbs the sunlight and in return heats the water tank connected to the collector. Passive solar design- Is used to trap more heat during the winter whilst not over heating during summers. Since the solar power is available in abundance it helps in fulfilling the energy needs of humans and with the usage of the solar power, there might as well be a day where the buildings and households need not rely on the external grid for the power (Earthsummit,2002). There has been much advancement made regarding the solar power and with the introduction of nanotechnology which will improve the efficiencies and result in reduced infrastructure cost this can very soon be a very competitive source of energy in a tropical place like India, though there are other sources of energy solar power has its advantages like the there are no trade barriers for the suns energy and this type of equipment can be placed anywhere where there is sunlight and is also eco-friendly which will not hinder the other surrounding factors thus making solar power more affordable (Brito et al,2005), this type of tiny nanotechnology solar cell can be printed on a thin flexible light- retaining material which will reduce the cost of production compared to the silicon cells which requires a clean room for manufacturing with no dust and should be free from airborne microbes, moreover the nano materials are useful in capturing and transmitting the energy. (Carlstrom,2005). The use of plastic materials has brought a change in harnessing the suns rays as half of the suns energy lies in the infrared rays and the other half in the visible spectrum, the plastic materials with the nanotechnology has the tendency to capture the energy from the infrared rays which is five times more efficient than the existing solar cell technology (Lovgren,2005). We will look at the market and the players globally and in India which suits consumer needs. Aim: To undertake a study on public awareness, attitude and perceptions of Solar power as an alternative to sources of power and to suggest a marketing plan for a technology/company that would be viable in India. Objectives: To examine and evaluate power sector in India. Identify and evaluate the alternative power sources in India Study on solar energy sector. To examine and analyze public awareness and perception of solar energy and alternative energy sources Identify solar power generation technology in India and abroad. Identify the technology that consumer needs and would be most viable in India. To carry out a literature review on Environmental marketing. On basis of the complete study a market plan is made to popularize the solar power generation technology in India. Research Questions: What proportions of Indias energy needs are met by solar power? Size of market, players, types of equipment and their effectiveness/efficiency? How are they being marketed? Are domestic households being targeted? What is the level of awareness of domestic usage of solar power amongst Indians? Why has solar power not caught on in a big way in a tropical country like India? Forming a market strategy. Research Methodology: The methodology used in this research is both primary and secondary, as this research deals with the current issues and also the data which is existing in the databases related to the Solar energy. Secondary Data: The data from journals, articles gives us an idea of how things were earlier regarding the usage of solar power equipment and also the data bases like Proquest-ABI Global, EBSCO, and Science Direct helps us to find out about the advancements made in the history of solar power with the help of the available statistics. This type of data is readily available on the internet or in the libraries so the time required to collect is comparatively less and there is a scope to find data in large amounts. The information which is obtained from the secondary data can be re-phrased and cited in the research with proper references and a detailed analysis on various power sectors can be obtained. Primary Data: The data collected from the primary data can be both qualitative and quantitative, as it uses different forms of data collection techniques like: Questionnaires It focuses on the sections of the research which are to be covered and can cover a large number of peoples opinion about a particular area of interest, a wider geographic coverage is obtained. In this research we make a questionnaire to find out about the attitudes and perceptions of Indian consumers regarding the usage of solar powered equipment. We mainly concentrate on the households as these constitute a major part in knowing the demand. The questionnaires once completed could be sent across through an email to various household groups in different locations in India and as well receive the reply through an email or post. The questionnaire could be structured or unstructured with open and closed type questions in it which would help us yield information regarding the perceptions of the Indian consumers regarding the usage of solar power. With the help of resources like the survey monkey the questionnaires can be formed and sent across to people for their views about a particular aspect concerned with the research. Interviews It is a technique that is used to gain an understanding of the underlying reasons for peoples attitudes, preferences or behavior. Interviews can be undertaken on a personal one-to-one basis or in a group. This can be done by calling up people personally or by having a gathering where a conference call could be setup and finding out information on how they feel about the usage of the solar powered equipment and as well make them aware of the advantages they get with the usage of the equipments. We can mainly focus on to what extent people in India are aware of the viability of the solar power. Project plan: Gantt chart representation: S.No. Title. June July August Week2 Week3 Week 4 Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 1 Research proposal completion 2 Sector analysis in India 3 Study of Solar power sector in India and world 4 Preparation of questionnaires and interview planning. 5 Interviewing people and filing responses received and literature review on environmental marketing. 6 Mapping needs to technology: identification of technology/company. 7 Forming a marketing strategy. 8 Coalition of research work.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Mental Health Issues in the UK Criminal Justice System

Mental Health Issues in the UK Criminal Justice System Mental Health illness is a problem that the criminal justice system faces daily. In 1992, the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI) and the Public Citizens Health Research Group released a report that described alarmingly high numbers of people with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other serious mental illnesses incarcerated in jails across the country (Erickson Erickson, 2008, p. 4). Mental health illness can contribute to jail and prison overcrowding, high crime rates, drug addiction, and many other problems. The team decided to examine mental health issues as it relates to the criminal justice system and specifically how mental health can play a role in the crime. Different factors can become a problem with mental health illness and the criminal justice system. Jail and prison officials should be train to identify mental health crisis. Mental health professionals including psychiatrists should be available 24 hours a day, seven days a week, to evaluate potential crises and prescribe emergency medications in detention facilities (Compton Kotwicki, 2007, p. 49). Even though, is true the problem starts with the crime and the sentence. Many problems and questions arise when a person who possesses a mental illness commits offense. There are many obstacles that need to be overcome before convicting someone of a crime. First a crime has to report. From there, the crime and the individual as well as witnesses need to be interview or interrogate. Information gathered during this process must be valid in order for the Prosecutor eventually hands down a charge. However, sometimes in certain circumstances, officers, and detectives may press charges against an individual and it the Prosecutor to either file charges under that individual. A prosecutor may agree with the charges that the Detectives chose, and in that case, the charges can be amended to a greater or lesser charge. At this point, it is particularly necessary that the defendant seek legal advice. A court date will determine. This typically called a hearing, and at this point, the defendant can make a plea of guilty, not guilty or no contest. From there, a trial will set in which the Prosecutor and Defense attorney will discuss their case before a jury. At the conclusion of the trial, the jury will decide guilt or innocence. According to Compton and Kotwicki (2007), Just like cases in which a mental illness is not a factor charges against a defendant with a mental illness may be dropped, the defendant can plead guilty, or the defendant can be found guilty or not guilty by trial (p. 490). A verdict of not guilty by reason of insanity is not a conviction, and it does not require a basis for criminal sentencing and punishment. Not that the charge should go away, but when the judge finds someone not guilty because of reason for insanity considered an acquittal. What the judge does is making that individual do his or her time in either a rehab facility or in a mental hospital. Depending, on the defendants behavior one could be eventually discharge with charges thrown out. If the defendants behavior becomes worse, charges will not get dropped, and one will sentence to prison after seeing the judge if the judge thinks he, or she would be competent to do his or her time in prison to finish the sentence for the crime her or she once committed (Compton and Kotwicki, 2007, p. 13). However, for people with mental illness, a judge may exercise discretion in pursuing alternatives to conviction and sentencing (Compton and Kotwicki, 2007, p. 13). Convictions could overturn for mental health issues depending on what issue they have. Many police officers or detective does not recognize the signs of a mental disease of an individual questioned or suspected of a crime. Reported to the New York Times, today many individuals can provide documentation with details giving them the right hand to get their conviction overturned. When a person is sitting in an interrogation room question for a crime, but has a mental illness that the police force cannot accept; also does not have the capabilities to ask for a lawyer, the judge will much abundantly so blame the police force for not seeing the signs of mental illness. When the defense team represents their client, it appear in court, which if the right protocol not understand; therefore the facts they appear before the court would have no cause. Many individuals make false confessions because of the illness they have which will allow the convictions to get overturned. People with mental illness cannot always tell their thoughts clearly or understand what others are saying to them (Persons With Mental Illness Who Are Homeless Or Missing: A Guide For Families, p. 1). In confusion, some will retreat while others have grandiose ideas and cannot make sound judgments (Persons With Mental Illness Who Are Homeless Or Missing: A Guide For Families, p. 1). Sometimes they leave home or other fixed surroundings, and they become homeless or missing (Persons With Mental Illness Who Are Homeless Or Missing: A Guide For Families, 2012, p. 1). They can go for days, weeks, months or years (Guide To Help Locate Missing Homeless Mentally Ill, 2012, p. 1). Often they leave behind distraught families, hoping to realize their loved ones home or to another safe place (Guide To Help Locate Missing Homeless Mentally Ill, 2012, p. 1). Different examples of mental illnesses are anxiety, which is a sense of fear, nervousness, and worry about something that may arise in the future. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that is a, mental illness characterized by an impaired ability to regulate activity level (hyperactivity) attend to tasks (inattention) (Information About Mental Illness And The Brain, 2012, p. 2). Inhibit behavior (impulsivity), schizophrenia, which is a serious, severe, and disabling brain disease (Mental Illness Glossary, 2012, p. 2). People with schizophrenia often suffer terrifying symptoms, such as hearing internal voices or believing that other people are reading their minds, controlling their thoughts, or plotting to harm them (Mental Illness Glossary, 2012, p. 2). These symptoms may cause them anxious and withdrawn (Information About Mental Illness And The Brain, 2012, p. 1). Their speech and behavior so disorganized that they may be confusing or frightening to others (Information About Mental Illness And The Brain, 2012, p. 1). These are just some examples of health issues that go unrecognized, so when a crime committed many police officers not trained to understand the symptoms and behaviors that go along with the mental illness. Many individuals across the nation suffer from chronic mental illness that can affect several factors of ones life. It can take an adverse impact to employment, personal relationships, and often leads to substance abuse and involvement of criminal activity. The team cannot control aspects of a mental illness we can determine the problems as well, as the issues surrounding the mentally ill individuals within the criminal justice system (Mentally Ill Offenders And County Jails; Survey Results And Policy Issues Criminal Justice, 2000, p. 15). There are many types of mentally ill offenders, some that commit violent crimes and others that commit minor offenses but from what even comparison that a person uses needs to understand that treatment is the place. Supporting resources revealed similar views by stating, Inadequate treatment and services leaves people unprotected from the effectiveness of their illness, and we wait and watch until they do something, often a non-violent misdemeanor, to put them in trouble with the law (Department of Health and Human Services, 2000, p. 1). For the offenders that commit minor offenses, law-enforcement officers usually can identify them from observations. At this point, a police officer has the potential to Baker Act the criminal. Possessing an Offender Baker Acted can remember as a way involuntary intend to obtain mental health treatment, For example, a person who is presenting a threat to him or herself or other that may be cannot access the treatment needed. If the officer, decides to make an arrest instead the person brought to jail and eventually through a screening process. The assessment will determine the condition or severity of his or her mental status. If the level is not uncommon, the offender place within the general population. If it verified that he or she is a risk, the person is places on the psychiatric status for further evaluations. Ultimately the mentally ill inmate will undergo treatment from physicians and case workers and spend eight times longer confine. An average prisoner to obtain the necessary treatment wants to become a productive member in society. The justice system has come a long distance by supporting programs, such as the Criminal Mental Health Project. This project was creating to discover better ways of handling mentally ill individuals. As they come in contact, the criminal justice system as well as treatment requires. There are two facilitate components to the development programs that include pre-arrest and the post arrest diversion program. The pre-arrest deviation is aim to identify and prevent any mentally ill person from entering the criminal justice system. According to resources, For these diversion options to be successful, though, resources must observe release conditions and provides treatment. Otherwise, diversion will just contribute to the deinstitutionalization/ criminalization revolving door (Center of Problem-Oriented Policing, 2006). Upon entry into treatment programs often offenders placed within community-based treatment facilities where they receive appropriate care. While undergoing treatment, they will continue to be monitor by a court ordered case worker. There are many studies that have tried to tackle the common questions of, how the justice system should play a key role when coming in contact with the mentally ill and what is the appropriate action that should supplied to each obligation of an offender who is mentally ill. The criminal justice system faced with a dilemma when a mentally ill person enters the justice system. The difficult task becomes weighing the options of punishment or providing treatment. This similar dilemma seen in the case of Andrea Yates, a 36 year-old native of Texas that drowned her five children. Many horrified by this crime in hopes she would be discipline and others had mixed emotions. It came out during the hearing that she was mentally ill suffering from postpartum psychosis but was this merely a defense tactic. Further researcher revealed that, A Justice Department investigation from 1999 that estimates the number of mentally ill prisoners to be about 16% of the total prison population. Analysts say fair treatment of the mental ill often overshadowed by opposition to the use of the insanity defense, which some claim abused a way to get away with crimes. According to reports, however, the insanity defense used in less than 1% of all criminal trials. Experts agree it succeeds in only about one-quarter of those cases (The Mentally Ill in the Legal System, 2009, p. 10). The problem still moves forward as the justice system debates on how to handle such circumstance. The issue becomes the responsibility as this is what country has distilled in the justice system. For this purpose, it is necessary to understand the roles and responsibilities that the justice system has in continuing further research on methods. To improve treatment of the mentally ill offenders as well as treatment for these offenders mentally. In a study taken by Psych Central, the discoveries suggest Two thirds of prisoners nationwide with a mental illness were off medication at the time of their arrest, according to a new study by Harvard researchers that suggest under treatment of mental illness contributes to crimes and imprisonment (Mental Health News from North Carolina Mental Hope, n.d., P 5.). Although the discoveries may reflect differences, the key factor is that mental health can and does contribute to crime. Many of the soldiers who serve in the Army and do respond will suffer from post-traumatic stress. Which lead, to a severe mental unbalance that ultimately results in crime. Very similar to that of a person who born with severe mental problems and lacks the ability to distinguish between right and wrong, many of these individuals commit a crime because of the constant replay of visions of acts committed while serving but under the direct control (Doctor Says Palin In Excellent Health CBS News, 2011, P. 1). Unfortunately, whether a person born with mental issues, or develops psychological issues as a result of an event in life can be more likely to possess a strong fear of crime. Institutes for mental health care, review scientific research a critical activity. A good way to stimulate research is by simplifying data collection through observation. In collecting data for the study of mental health issues, one effective way to collect data for this study would be through observation. Examination of subjects with mental illness would allow researchers to assess side effects of mental illness. For the study, of mental illness and crime consideration among other methods of data collection used to determine the effects of criminal activity in conjunction with crime. By observing, subjects who been diagnosed with mental illness along with surveying and evaluation of behavioral activities, a simple collection of information will assist in aiding researchers get answers to the questions of mental illness. The number of mentally ill offenders incarcerated is gradually growing. There are approximately seven percent of mentally ill offenders in jail within the U.S population. The approach to the participant evaluation will be selecting individuals whom have had prior encounters with the criminal justice system such as individual that entered the justice system and have under gone treatment from mental health professional that appointed by the mental health courts and not released. The selection of individuals will also include mentally ill offenders currently establishing a position with in the criminal justice system. These include but not limited to offenders currently seeking treatment for their illness, offenders that are awaiting the hearing process from the courts, and detainees from law-enforcement officers that have implemented the Bakers Act that is necessary for accurate and successful treatment. This evaluation would be far from complete if the process did not include the expe rience and knowledge from the trained professional such as law-enforcement officers that often are the first contacts made, the mental health courts that make the determination of each unique case, and the mental health professionals that treat the offenders in order for them to have a chance to be a productive member in society. They attempt to conduct this evaluation will pay close attention to the needs of these individuals, such as setting, technique of the evaluation and how the groups be combined in order to obtain accurate data. The evaluation will become much more simplified by combining the groups to obtain structure and order during the evaluation. The break down of the evaluation will be following an outline in which how the evaluation process conducted, this will ensure that all data collected and is significant to the study as well as the study groups. The groups be combined as the following, the prior mentally ill offenders findings be incorporated with the mentally ill offenders that currently detained in the criminal justice system, this can include first time offenders and offenders awaiting hearing. The next groups will consist of the offenders as a whole number and the experienced professional that have implemented their treatments and rehabilitation. The next stage in the evaluation is to secure an environment suitable for all participants. This will ensure comfort ability with the participants; it would also be an area with no distractions. As the interviews are conducting a series of individua ls questions, be generated for each individual. The qualitative data method that be implemented will make certain that other resources can be used to support the findings of the evaluation. Some excellent resources that can be collected in this procedure are medical evaluation records and details procedures that utilized as guidelines for necessary treatment for the offender. When we talk about the procedures for mental illnesses, the doctors have to treat each illness case by case basis. A prime example is a defendant that is mentally retarded. The defendant charged with kidnapping and murder. The mental retardation evidence consisted of expert testimony that the defendant had intellectual deficits (an IQ below 70), and also contained three variable manipulations: (1) testimony that the defendant lacked/did not lack a practical adaptive skill (the ability to care for himself); (2) testimony that the defendant lacked/did not lack a social adaptive skill (interpersonal abilities); and (3) the age of onset of the mental retardation as being from birth (before 18) or after age 18 due to a brain injury (Margaret Reardon, 2007, p. 11). Although by definition mental retardation cannot have an onset after age 18, many researchers points out the legal issue that identical intellectual deficits can develop regardless of age of onset (Margaret Reardon, 2007, p. 12) . The jurors have to consider the mental illness of the person that set forth of the trial. Many defendants receive expert testimony that specifically stated that the crime was attributable to the defendants mental retardation. The nexus testimony stated that the defendant was unable to appreciate the criminal nature of their act and that he or she was vulnerable to following the direction of others due to their limited logical capacity (Margaret Reardon, 2007, p. 12). Participants then intended for to a page containing jury instructions where they recorded their verdict of whether the defendant is mentally retarded. Variables manipulated in the instructions included (1) the party carrying the burden of proof, (2) the standard of proof (beyond a reasonable doubt/by a preponderance of the evidence), and for the mental retardation determination, (3) the definition of mental retardation used (Margaret Reardon, 2007, p. 12). Many individuals have to understand the different emotions and styles with dealing with an individual with mental illness. Self-aware is well aware of their moods. These people have some sophistication about their emotional lives. They are in excellent psychological health and tend to have a positive outlook on life. When they get into a bad mood, they do not ruminate or obsess about it, and are able to get out of it sooner. Engulfed are people who feel swamped by their emotions and helpless to escape them, they are mercurial and not particularly much aware of their feelings, so they lost in them rather than having some perspective (Batool, 2011, p. 1). They have no control over their emotional life. Accepting people are usually clear about what they are feeling, they accept their mood, but do not try to change them either in whole or severe mood. This pattern found among depressed people who resigned to their despair (Batool, 2011, p. 1)). The difference between right and wrong is not easily explained. Mental health and illness within the walls of the correctional facilities throughout the United States are struggling with many obstacles. Many inmates claim insanity or a mental illness. However, we left to believe that they are simply using this defense as a way to ask for forgiveness for the crime they have committed. There are many inmates that medicated, but nothing seems to help their violent outbursts. On the other hand, there are many inmates that are in fact, responding to medications to help their condition. According to Wendy Fry, producer of, she states that the cost per year to house an inmate is approximately $50,000 per year but that when an inmate hits the age of 55, we should expect that amount to almost triple. The idea of figuring out a way to eliminate mental health and illness from the prison setting is not as easy as one may think. Actually, it is next to impossible. Medicaid set up to help those who are below the income in which they could afford health insurance. Medicaid pays for mental health appointments as well as the medication to control such illnesses. However, without the will of the individual or the parents of children to seek out the help needed, our prisons will continue to be overcrowded and unsteady. There is one act that we can do. When an inmate comes into the realm of the correctional facility, we can do what we have been doing, we provide them with medical care, and this also includes mental health. From there it all depends on the individual if they are going to work the system, or let the system work for them. There is a saying that you can lead a horse to water, but you cannot make them drink. This can be applied to the correctional facilities inmates. Some people are just career criminals, and with that being said, some inmates clearly need mental health. So before, we can go in depth on a budget to help this situation, we need to know how to tell the difference between mental illness and simply an excuse to break the law. In conclusion, many problems stem from mental health illness when brought against the criminal justice system. Furthermore, many questions brought up about the sentencing and what punishing a person with a mental illness should obtain and what mark just for an individual with a mental illness. Certain laws are in place for people with a mental illness that commits offense. Some individuals who do have a mental illness but convicted and cut through the loop holes of the criminal justice system.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Applying Platos Allegory of the Cave Essay -- Plato, Philosophy, Phil

Applying Plato's Allegory of the Cave to Oedipus Rex, Hamlet,and Thomas Becket Plato was one of the greatest philosophers of all time. He is recognized all over the world as one of the greatest minds of all time. Knowledge is required under compulsion has not hold on the mind.(Durant 24). Plato's dialogues are the fruit of a rare mind; but the could not have kept their perennial freshness if they had not somehow succeeded in expressing he problems and the convictions that are common to Plato's age and to all later ages. Genius alone is not enough; or perhaps it were wiser to say that we recognize genius only in the power of divination that overleaps the boundaries of a special time and place.(Jowett xi). Although Plato did not come up with the Allegory of the Cave, Socrates did, he transcribed it. In their own ways, Oedipus Rex, Hamlet, and Thomas Becket, prove that one must break the chains of the cave to discover the truth. In view of Plato's Allegory of the Cave, several literary works contain characters who break from the shadows of the cave to witn ess "the real world". Plato's Allegory of the Cave, presents Socrates instructing one of his students to imagine that there was a cave that was totally dark, except from the light that comes from the entrance and from a fire. The student was instructed then to imagine that the inhabitants of the cave have their necks and legs chained to the wall, impossible for the inhabitants to move. The people who control the cave place objects in front of the fire so that the inhabitants of the cave only see the shadows of the objects that the people want them to see. The chained inhabitants never get to see the real objects, only the distorted images of the objects. Furthermore, the inhabitants of the cave perceive the distorted objects as real, not the actual objects as being real. Socrates, then tells the student to imagine if the inhabitants of the cave were suddenly freed of the chains. The inhabitants would be in agonizing pain, for the first time in their lives the individuals can stand and move their heads. Their bodies are not used to being in such positions. The inhabitants of the cave, now are able to behold the light glimmering outside the cave. The inhabitants who were only adapted to only darkness, perceive light. The light stabs at their eyes, it is too painful for these individ... ...the cave and witness the light of the real world, one will never get to see the harsh truth of their destiny. Works Cited Gibson, Anna Lee, "Allegory of the Cave." Advanced Placement English Writing Manual and Literary Guide. Ed. Jewell Worley and Frank Gentry. Wise: Wise County Vocational-Technical Center. 1992. The Canterbury Story. Anglicans Online. Http:// 3 Dec., 1997. Jowett, Benjamin. The Dialogues of Plato. Ed. William Chase Green. New York: Liveright Publishing Company. 1954. Durant, Will. "The live and opinions of the greater philosophers." The Story of Philosophy. New York: Simon and Schuster Rockefeller Center. 1961. Shakespeare, William. "Hamlet." England in Literature. Illinois: Scott, Foresman, and Company. 1987. Becket Murder. Hyperhistory. Online. Http:// Stravinsky, Igor. Oedipus Rex . Online. Http:// Jaspers, Carl. "Plato." The Great Philosophers. Ed. Hannah Arendt. New York: harcourt, Brace & World, Inc. 1962. Jowett, B. The Dialogues of Plato. New York: Random House. 1937.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Capital Punishment, Death Penalty - What Are We Waiting For? :: Argumentative Persuasive Essays

Capital Punishment Essays – What Are We Waiting For? "execution prevents eighteen murders per year."(Hirsch, 122) Opponents argue that capital punishment is immoral. But if you follow the Old Testament, it is moral. In one passage from Genesis, â€Å"Whoever sheds the blood of man, by man shall his blood be shed.† Another from Exodus, â€Å"Eye for an eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, burn for burn, wound for wound, stripe for stripe† (Samaha, 440). It was not very moral of the prisoner to commit a murder in the first place. Why should it be immoral to execute a prisoner, but moral to kill an innocent person. â€Å"It is as morally right to punish criminals for their wicked deeds as it is to praise heroes for their heroic deeds. If it is noble for soldiers to give their lives for their country in wartime, then it is morally right to claim the lives of murderers for killing innocent people in peaceable society(Samaha, 441).† According to Professor Ernest van den Haag: â€Å"The life of each man should be sacred to each other man... it is not enough to proclaim the sacredness and inviolability of human life. It must be secured as well, by threatening with the loss of their own life those who violate what has been proclaimed as inviolable-the right of innocents to live† (Haag, 67). Other opponents argue that there is the chance of executing an innocent prisoner. Hugo Adam Bedu and Michael L. Radelet collected evidence of every capital punishment case after the 1930's. They concluded that 23 innocent people, out of several thousand cases in the twentieth century, were convicted and executed, but all of these mistakes were made because there was a â€Å"forced confession, suppression of evidence, and perjury† (Samaha 442). That means not one of these persons was actually innocent they just had bad lawyers, or no lawyers when they had their trial. The last time a truly innocent person was executed was before the 1930's. The biggest argument for capital punishment is retribution. The victims family often feels relieved when the prisoner has been executed. â€Å"Retribution satisfies the demand for justice. It channels public outrage into the acceptable form of the criminal sentence. If criminal sentences do not satisfy this demand for justice, angry citizens may lose respect for law and even, on occasion, take it into their own hands (Samaha, 414).† The punishment handed out should fit the crime committed, if a murder is committed then he or she deserves to be executed. The best solution to the problem is to execute the prisoner right

Coming-of-Age Stories with Morals: T. Coraghessan Boyles Greasy Lake a

T. Coraghessan Boyle's "Greasy Lake" and John Updike's "A & P" have many similarities as well as differences. Both are coming-of-age stories that teach some sort of lesson to the protagonist at the end. â€Å"A&P† is about a nineteen-year-old boy who stands up against his manager to impress a couple of girls who are dressed â€Å"immodestly†. â€Å"Greasy Lake† is about many nineteen years olds playing a prank on a couple of bad characters who turn out to show the teens what they can really do in return. Luckily, the narrator and Sammy both realize their deficiency after the situations with the other characters. In â€Å"A&P† the narrator’s turning point in his life is when he finds the bikers body in the lake next to him. In â€Å"Greasy Lake† the realization occurs after Sammy quits his job and tries to be the â€Å"hero† to those girls. In both stories, the protagonists’ have no idea what the real world is like, or how it works. The narrator in â€Å"Greasy Lake† does not know what bad means until his own â€Å"badness† is put to the test in the real world. From his experience, Sammy learns that he will...

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Gender and Socialization Essay

The main purpose of this paper is to focus on gender socialization. Human beings that belong to different societies have varied perceptions, opinions, and manners toward socializing with the same or opposite sex. Categorized in the main gender types, male and female are known to react in different ways when given and exposed in the same situation. Regardless of cultural norms or mores of any society in particular, interaction with peers, family, classmates, and other people depend on the male’s and female’s orientation in gender socialization and gender roles. Some concepts attempt to explain the gender issues faced by the two gender types. These attributions of concepts then play an important role in understanding the different societies’ construct of their existing mechanisms of gender roles and expectations including the societies’ gender markers as determinants of sex and gender (SparkNotes, 2008). Gender Socialization Gender and socialization are two different terms that have a relationship with each other. Gender refers to the behavioral characteristics of an individual regarding an individual’s essence of womanhood or manhood, masculinity or femininity, while socialization refers to the social and interpersonal instincts of human in interacting, communicating, and dealing with others. A newborn infant for instance, may be oriented towards its gender by its first experience of socialization after being born. The infant may be more exposed to male socialization rather than female socialization or vice versa which would later on affect the behavior of the infant while growing up. Another example is the way parents choose what the appropriate toy is to be played by their sons and daughters. Usually, parents buy their baby girl a mini-kitchen or ironing set to orient them (however, it is subconscious for the parents’ part) with the future maternal role. For the baby boy’s part, they are usually given toy trucks or tools for various chores in the house for the same underlying purpose. Moreover, upon receiving the presents, the girls usually react more appreciative and smiling than the boys. The essence of gender socialization then, is for the infants to learn the behavior appropriate for their designated sexes (SparkNotes, 2008). Reaction By the time an infant reaches ten months after the day of birth, gender socialization is already executed through the infant’s interaction with the environment, its family members, and caretakers. This is the time when the infant starts to identify him- or herself in either of the two sexes: male or female. Thus, this is also the time for newborn infants to associate the specific gender roles (the attributes and behavior that the culture constructively defines) that are appropriate for their sex and gender. Later in the life of infants, the effects of the previous experience in gender orientation would reflect in their current behavior. Meanwhile, I should say from personal experience that I was mostly given a Barbie doll for Christmas or birthday present. In so doing, I grew up to become a very neat lady who has the taste for fashion and luxury Further, I attribute the idea that I have become a fashionable and finesse lady to my previous hobby of playing, dressing and undressing my Barbie doll (SparkNotes, 2008). Conclusion Gender socialization teaches the infants that would grow as adults the appropriate roles defined by culture and behaviors that are expected of them by the society. Submission to the expectations of the culture and society is important, as every living individual has to interact with others in whatever society he or she belongs to in order to survive and attain a sense of belongingness. Family, peer groups, school, mass media, and some texts play a part in honing this cultured set of beliefs regarding the appropriate roles and expected behaviors for men and women. Men who are accustomed to playing tough games in their childhood result to be future tough guys and women are the opposite. Reference SparkNotes. (2008). Gender socialization. In SparkNotes 101: Sociology. Retrieved December 9, 2008 from http://www. sparknotes. com/101/sociology/socialization/gender_socialization. html.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Shen Fu

Shen Fu The book Shen Fu’s Six Records of a Floating Life is both an autobiography and love story of a man named Shen Fu, who was educated toward the path to grow up to be a scholar, but he kept on failing the exams. He went on to earn his living as secretary for a magistrate and also selling off his wife’s artwork. His wife is the girl that he fell had fallen in love with as a young child. Together, they had a very weird and odd relationship (at least compared to our modern day idea of a relationship).I think that Shen Fu really wanted the big job as the magistrate, but it also seemed like he didn’t really want to work very hard for the position. Perhaps he was a tad on the lazy side of things. He grew up in a rather scholarly middle class family and he spent much of his life trying to pass the exam. The only problem was that he kept failing it over and over again, and did never actually get around to passing it. Shen Fu seemed to focus a lot of his attention on status, and I think that it was mostly due to his family and his social class that he was born into.It seems to me that the higher status you had back then, the more you focused on status and put being born of high class up on a pedestal. Shen Fu his whole life was seeking this â€Å"Floating Life† which basically means that you’re economically secure, and that life is a more of a â€Å"dream† rather than actual reality. I thought he was always seeking this because he was always trying to figure out how to make a good deal more money, or to get a desirable scholarly position. Shen Fu, in my opinion, was rather greedy and materialistic, and was generally out for himself.Although, to be fair, he did provide for his family by taking on many different kinds of jobs, loans, and even by attempting to sell his wife’s artwork. This book is actually better known being a love story. Though it is much different then what we think a love story should traditionally c onsist of. Shen Fu was known for spending a lot of time with Prostitutes, and his wife seemed ok with it, she even went and found him a concubine. Shen Fu basically viewed his wife as his equal, rather than looking down on her as a woman, this was a very rare view for a man to have considering the time and place this took story took course.Most traditional loves stories would make this story appear crazy, this is mostly because the more traditional thought of love is between two people sharing and expressing mutual feelings for each other. Love is generally not thought of as the wife going out and searching for a good Concubine for her husband to sleep with. However, I think the more romantic and warming part of the story was that Shen Fu and his wife, Yun, enjoyed reading, drinking, and writing poetry together. I actually think that they genuinely enjoyed each other’s company.Another reason why this story could be view as a bit of a romance, was because Shen Fu was really co mmitted to supporting his family by working and taking on many jobs and responsibilities. His dedication to his wife was pretty romantic in and of itself. I didn’t think that Shen Fu was a filial son because there was a lot of conflict between his family. Think that a lot of the conflict was because he went down in class and never did become a magistrate like he and his family had hoped he would.It seems like his family viewed at him as if he didn’t try hard enough and was a somewhat of a failure to them. I would consider Shen Fu in the lower to middle class, because, he never got the job as a magistrate and didn’t have enough money to adequately support his family, so he has to sell off his wife’s artwork. I would probably put him in the lower class, but the fact that he came from a middle class family and had a concubine might put him a little on the higher side of classes. I think that this story of Shen Fu’s life does indeed exemplify the typic al lifestyle during the Qing Dynasty.Shen Fu and his wife both viewed each other as equals, which back then was really different from the norm. How he focused mush of his attention on status was a really big thing during the Qing era, and how he aspired to have a floating life style. I think it also showed how that even though he had a wife, he went out drinking with prostitutes and with his Concubine, which seems like it was pretty common back then. Overall, I thought that it was actually a pretty interesting book. It definitely wasn’t what I was expecting, and It gave a good example of how life was for his class during the Qing era.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

History of Education Essay

Introduction The period between 1965 and the latter end of the 1980s witnessed significant developments in the provision of post primary education in Ireland. This coincided with changes in Irish and indeed worldwide society. What makes the changes that came about so significant was the fact that for so long education policy in Ireland had remained practically untouched. From the 1920s to the 1950s, Ireland was still a place where education was seen as Ideological and a â€Å"preserve of the middle classes†. The church/religious orders were still underpinning the structures in education. The 1920s was the era of the Gaelic League, and an attempt at reviving the ancient life of Ireland as a Gaelic State. During this time little was done to tackle the low levels of participation in education, especially amongst some groups of society, particularly people from poorer socio economic areas, people from rural areas, and girls in education. It was essentially a period of stagnation from the point of view of any development by government, or any change in attitude from the public towards education. Children were needed on farms to make ends meet. From the mid-sixties onwards however, things began to change. Over the course of the paper I hope to show how the general public understanding of and attitude towards education changed. I will discuss how the government’s attitude towards education also changed, in a number of ways, including how it was provided, and also what was provided as education. Policy, Curriculum, Access and Financing are areas that were all areas of major change. I hope to discuss how these changes in the provision of post-primary education came about, and how the understanding of schooling evolved and were articulated. Changes in public perception of education One of the biggest changes in Education during the 60‘s and early 70’s, was the way people viewed and understood Education. Ireland in the 1930s and 1940s was in a very bad economic situation, with an ailing economy and mass emigration. Between 1932 and 1948, Tomas Derek served as minister for education and effectively done nothing of major significance. Economic conditions were the basis for the decisions made during this time. It was felt there was no need to change the curriculum, peoples thinking was still very rigid, and the thought of free education wasn’t thought of as any way feasible or realistic, with ideas around this described as utopian. Developments were still being affected by post war economic conditions. So what paved the way for the change that was to come? The American economist and historian, Walt Rostow, in his book, â€Å"The Stages of Economic Development†, argues that there are 5 stages on the â€Å"Road to Development†. He speaks of a situation where there is a traditional society, where the ruling elite have all the say and prospects, and the lower income person has little or no prospect of improving their lot. Social customs and traditional values are strong. He argues that there is a second stage, and this is the one I feel Ireland went through in the latter half of the 50s, early 60s. He calls it â€Å"The Preconditions for Take-off†. In this stage people become more away of the possibilities that exist for them, and more aware of the benefits of education and developing new skills for careers away from the traditional farming. Prior to the Investment in Education bill, and the dawn of Free Education, Free buses, comprehensive schools, curriculum changes, there had to be a change in the way people thought. So what brought about this change? Around this time there was a radical change in peoples thinking and also in their expectations for life, brought on by, amongst other things; †¢ The dawn of television, which brought more information into people’s lives, opening their minds to new possibilities and bigger expectations of life, †¢ The establishment of state television in the shape of Telefis Eireann in 1962, which broadcast shows from Britain and America had a profound change on attitude. †¢ Women’s rights, the civil rights movement, the space race, were other events of the time that showed people that there were other possibilities now open to them. The 1960s generation were more vocal, liberal, and more politically aware. There was a growing awareness around this time of social exclusion, especially when it comes to people from poorer economic backgrounds, rural areas, and women. Together, these factors combined to change the way people were thinking about education, and ultimately, helped to change the way the state thought about education. People were now beginning to see that the longer a person could stay in education, and the more qualified they could become, the better chance they had in life of getting a more desirable job and salary. Changes in Investment in Education In terms of Investment in education, at the end of the 1950s, and beginning of the 1960s, Ireland was lagging far behind other countries in the world. To give an example of where we Ireland was at in 1959 in regards to investment in education, Ireland was investing 50p per child, whereas Russia was operating at a level fourteen times higher at ? 7, the USA at ? 5 per child, and perhaps most significant for us, GB/NI was investing ? 2. 25 per child in education. Ireland was coming from a very poor time in its economic history, post-World War II. However, around 1960, there was an upturn in the economy. With this came the thinking that there was a need for more technical skills, leading to the building of 35 Vocational schools, where more technical subjects would be taught. The problem with these schools was that they were poorly resourced, and it was expensive to fund this. The public was becoming increasingly aware of the correlation between spending on education and the increase in the standard of living. There was a growing demand for access to education for all. The OECD report which was commissioned in 1962 was produced in 1965. The report by the OECD was commissioned to analyse the education system in Ireland, identify areas of weakness, and recommend changes for the future. It was also supposed to identify the â€Å"manpower needs† of Ireland over the following 15-20 years. What the report did do was highlight the inequalities that existed in terms of opportunity when it came to access to post primary and 3rd level education and a host of other issues. This was to prove a catalyst for change throughout the following 25 years. The OECD report was the most thorough investigation of the Irish education system conducted in decades, if not ever. The 1991 OECD review of Irish National Policy has referred to the report of 1965 as â€Å"a landmark both in the national and international memory†, and â€Å"remarkable for its comprehensiveness, its studied detachment, its theoretical underpinning, its systematic accumulation of a mass of baseline data, its detailed estimates of quantitative trends and not least the originality of the methods that it used to penetrate unexplored territory†. It highlighted the high instances of school leavers at primary level, (around 17,000 per year (Randles 1975:216)), a low rate of pupils of vocational students going on to third level, (lack of Institute of technology’s at this time), and inequalities in education for children because of geographical location and/or social group, that is, they came from a disadvantaged background financially or from an a rural area with poor access to a school. The report recommended that there was a need for wider participation of students in schooling and for students to be in the education system for longer periods. The report also brought up the economic benefits to Ireland of having educated people. This was a change from the previous way of thinking whereby children were seen to be wasting their time continuing in education when they could be working and earning a wage. Its recommendations included the following; †¢ increased investment to get more children participating in education, and for longer, i. e. the use of scholarship schemes to increase participation †¢ a need for policy planning to improve education across the board in Ireland, at all levels †¢ A need for a programme of building which included amalgamating smaller schools to form bigger more efficient schools †¢ Up skilling and training, (or in service) for teachers. The OECD report wasn’t alone in highlighting these issues. The Labour Party policy document â€Å"Challenge and Change in Education† 1963, highlighted a lot of the same issues as the report, and highlighted the need for a less discriminatory educational system not only ‘†¦.. on social or moral grounds, but (as) a basic economic investment’; In the next few years, this country is going to face enormous economic problems, problems which may indeed put our survival as an independent nation in question. It is, therefore, essential that planning in education should be an inherent part of our economic planning. Already shortages of certain types of skill are becoming felt in our economy, and at the same time there is a surplus of other skills resulting in under employment and emigration (Randles 1975). The Federation of Irish Secondary Schools (1962) report, ‘Investment in Education in the Republic of Ireland’ argued that â€Å"Selfishness is almost always short-sighted†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦maintenance of such restrictions (restricting educational expansion) on educational facilities cannot fail to ultimately adversely affect our Irish economy, and thus indirectly injure both themselves and their families†(O’Sullivan 2005:269). In 1966, Donogh O’Malley announced free education was to be introduced. This was a significant development in Irish society. â€Å"O Malley’s Bombshell†, so called due to his lack of consultation with people over his announcement, detailed free education to leaving certificate at the age of 18, and free buses providing transport for students. This was an attempt to keep children in Education for longer and to an older age. At the time, around 17,000 children left school after finishing primary education. (Randles, 1975:216) He also announced that he was raising the age that children could leave school to 15 years of age from 14 years of age. This was due to be in place by 1970, but this was later deferred until 1972. (The reason behind this deferral was due to the success of the voluntary participation in second level education after the free education announcement, and also to give time to train teachers to know how to deal with the extra reluctant school goers who have less ability and/or educational motivation. ) The effect on numbers attending post-primary school was almost immediate, with a rise in secondary school enrolment of 15,000 between September 1966 and September 1967. An example of the popularity of the free bus scheme can be seen in the figures where out of 79,000 pupils in day school, 92% of the day school pupils opted for the â€Å"free buses† scheme-(Randles p. 276) The government estimated that the number of pupils in post-primary schools increased from 149,000 in 1966 to 184,500 in 1968, and that the raising of the school leaving age to 15 years of age would eventually lead to over 200,000 before the end of the third programme for education. (Hyland, Milne et al 1995). The success of the bill can be measured in the figures of how many pupils and schools opted into the scheme for free education. O’Malley had hoped for a figure of 75% of pupils opting for free education, but the figures showed that in September 1967, the figure was in fact sitting at 92%. (Randles 1975:276) An extract from the â€Å"Third Programme for Economic and Social Development 1969-1972† which was laid before the Houses of the Oireachtas in March 1969, shows that the government acknowledging the link between education and economic and social development, â€Å"The vital role of education in economic and social development and the need for fundamental changes in this sector has been repeatedly stressed in recent years. This increased emphasis has been reflected in the expansion in state expenditure. During the first programme, Exchequer expenditure on education (excluding agricultural education) increased from less than ? 16 million in 1958/59 to over ? 25 million in 1963/64 at current prices. The rate of increase has been even greater during the second programme; Exchequer expenditure in 1968/69 is estimated at ? 56 million†. (Hyland, Milne et al 1995:41) Changes in Government understanding of education. By the end of the 1960’s, it was for the first time that economic need was shaping education policy rather than pedagogy of the past. This is reflected when Brian Lenihan, who took over as minister for education when Donogh O Malley passed away suddenly in 1968, ordered a review of the education system with a view to job requirements, further emphasising the point that it was now an economy driven vision of education that we were adopting. However, this review was cancelled when Fianna Fail returned to power in 1969 and Padraig Faulkner was minister for education. The third Programme for Economic and Social Development also highlighted the need for more qualified teachers. The report states that â€Å"The number of teachers in secondary and vocational schools has been increasing by about 400 per year. The increase in 1968/69 is about 800†. (Hyland, Milne et al 1995:43) To facilitate the demand, there was a greater number of places in the relevant faculties in University, courses leading to the Higher Diploma in education was introduced in Maynooth, and there was an increase in departmental courses for the training of vocational teachers. The growth in the economy and in the technical sector led to the need for more people qualified in the technical areas. This combined with the OECD report highlighting the need for a building programme in Ireland led to the opening of RTC’s, Regional Technology Institutes. The building of the technical institutes regionally was to serve the dual purpose of tackling the problem of people being geographically disadvantaged, and the need for more technical courses. The relative success in this can be measured in rise of numbers attending, 5. 9% of people took up places in RTC’s in 1965, compared to 36. 7% in 1981-1982. The shift in emphasis or the uptake of higher education courses was towards technical courses, going from a level of 80% of students being in higher education in Universities, to 50% of people taking higher education courses taking up places in technical courses in 1980. Changes in Government understanding of schooling and curriculum While the period from 1965 to the early 1970s was primarily noted for developments such as the introduction of free education and bus travel, the raising of the school leavers age, and the introduction of comprehensive and community schools, it is worth also focusing on the curricular and educational policies that took places in this period. The main changes in regards to the curriculum include introducing common courses and examinations in secondary schools, thus enabling students attending vocational schools, comprehensive and community schools to study for the same exams as they would have been doing had they gone down the traditional route and attended some of the traditional secondary schools. Other changes to the curriculum included the introduction of new subjects, the removal of others, and the changing of content in others. One of the reasons why the second level curriculum was subjected to continuous adaptation around this time(early 1970’s) was to cater for the varied needs and abilities of the greater student population, which was a broader spectrum of student that there had been previously. In 1969, Minister for Education Brian Lenihan produced a booklet called, â€Å"All our Children†. The idea behind this booklet was to explain the changes that were happening in education in Ireland, such as the new Primary School Curriculum, the opening of Comprehensive schools, the new subjects and revision of others, as well as the building of technical colleges. Education in the 1970s may not have strictly followed the guidelines set out in the booklet, but it is an example of the way the government was changing in the way they were thinking about education, and their efforts to keep the public informed. Its publication also highlights the growing demand for information about education from the general population that was occurring at the time. Contrast this to the attitude towards education in previous decades and it highlights how far Ireland had come in such a short period of time. A further example of the change in how the government were approaching education and policy was evident when in 1970, then minister for education Padraig Falkner, said that there was now a change in the emphasis in educational, and that it was now a case of â€Å"passing from that of quantity to quality†, i. e. â€Å"from concentration on an expansion in the number of students attending at educational institutions to particular concern with the diversity of opportunity provided, the suitability of curricula, and long term planning for the future. †(Mulchahy, O’Sullivan 1989:81) This change in thinking and understanding led to developments such as the social and environmental studies project (SESP) based at St Patricks Comprehensive School in Shannon being set up, as well as projects aimed at developing the curriculum in other schools. The Higher Education Authority was set up by an act of the Oireachtas to advise the government on developing higher educational facilities. In 1971 there was the introduction of the New Curriculum for primary schools. Throughout the 1970s Ireland saw changes at third level, with the setting up of the nine Regional Technical Colleges, two National Institutes of technologies, and the opening of Thomand College. During this period, spending on education soared, from ? 78million in 1970 to ? 443 in 1979. (Hyland, Milne et al 1995:50) Faulkner also set up a committee in September 1970 â€Å"to evaluate the present form and function of the Intermediate Certificate examination and to advise on new types of public examinations†. (Randles 1975:315) The rationale behind this came from the drop in the pass rate for the Intermediate Certificate, from 87% in 1968, to 74. 6% in 1969 and then 73. 5% in 1970. This can be attributed to students with a larger span of abilities entering post primary and taking the examinations than had been the case before, and all of these students targeting the Intermediate exam regardless of its suitability to them. It was now being recognised that the Intermediate exam wasn’t suitable to all. The developments at third level are also important to note. Aside from the developmental works/building works done in providing the new RTC’s, aided by the setting up of the Higher Education Authority, teacher training was now looked at as being increasingly important. Teacher training courses was extended from two to three years; the National Institute for Higher Education was set up in Limerick, and Thomand College acting as a facility where teachers of specialist subjects could be educated. There is also a move to lower the pupil-student ratio, and to have greater accessibility to third level education for all. These changes at government level throughout the 1970s and early 1980s highlight the changes in the thinking behind education. No longer was it a â€Å"quantity† issue, it was now about â€Å"quality† of education. Greater facilities, better trained teachers, and increased availability of opportunities at third level are now real issues. If you contrast this to the early 1960’s, where it was a case of getting as many people into education, and then keeping them there as long as possible. Conclusion The way schooling in Ireland was understood changed dramatically over the period between 1965 and the end of the 1980s. It is a period of time where there is so much to discuss and it is hard to limit to speaking about just a few things. I felt that the most significant changes took place in the late 60’s, early, 70’s. I feel these were the most significant because these changes paved the way for changes that were to follow. The change in peoples understanding of the importance of education in turn led to an increased demand for education. Government understanding of the importance of education for the future economy combined with the growing demand for fairer access to education led to the hugely significant announcement of free education and free travel. At this point it was about getting the most amount of people into post-primary education as possible, but it wasn’t long before we began to realise that the quality of education needed to be looked at. The quality of teaching and the quality of what was being taught was looked at. Curriculum and examinations were investigated and changed. Real issues were now being addressed, such as third level requirements. Technical Institutes and courses were built and provided regionally. What made all of the changes so significant for me was the fact that for so long very little had been done in this field. The period between 1965 and the 1980s was a period where both the general public and government, began to see the importance of quality education, accessible to all, and its importance in the development of both the individual and the country. The developments of this period were a major stepping stone to where we are today. References Walt Rostow, â€Å"The Stages of Economic Growth†, 1959. (Available Online at) http://www. nvcc. edu/home/nvfordc/econdev/introduction/stages. html Irish Educational Documents, Volume 2 Aine Hyland, Kenneth Milne (Online Version found here) http://books. google. ie/books? id=8yNl5UCocFIC&pg=PA268&dq=1970+The+community+schools+proposal+ireland&hl=en&sa=X&ei=2H4ET6qMEYLLhAe-6pi-AQ&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=1970%20The%20community%20schools%20proposal%20ireland&f=false Articles from above Book; Investment in Education, inaugural speech, October 1962 Page 29-32 Third Programme for Economic and Social Development, 1969-1972, Post Primary, 14. Page 43 Whitepaper on Educational Development 1980, foreword Page 52 Ar ndaltai uile- All Our Children 1969 Page 45-47 Bibliography Irish Education Policy, Process and Substance, D. G. Mulcahy & Denis O’Sullivan Cultural Politics and Irish Education since the 1950s, Policy, Paradigms and Power, Denis O Sullivan Post-Primary School Education in Ireland 1957-1970 Sister Eileen Randles, Veritas Publicans 1975 The Politics of Irish Education 1920-65 Sean Farren.